2003 年硕士研究生入学考试试题
科目:基础英语
Section A
Directions: beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked (a), (b), (c) and (d). Choose the best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)
  1. Jack didn’t like driving on the freeways, but after a while he it. a. used to b. got used to c. had been gotten used to d. will be getting used to
  2. As I have nothing to do now, I as well go with you. a. should b. would c. could d. might
  3. Some scientists say it is essential that mankind the amount of air pollution in big cites. a. reduce b. reduced c. be reduced c. will reduce
  4. Computers that once took up entire room are now to put on desktops and into wristwatches. a. small enough b. smaller than c. so small d. as small as
  5. With age, the mineral content of human bones decreases, them more fragile. A, make b. and to make c. thereby making d. which it makes
  6. many copper mines in the south, a fact which contributes significantly to the state’s economy. a. they are b. there are c. of the d. the
  7. The colors and patterns of the wings of butterflies and moths help the organism against predators. a. protect b. being protected c. protecting d. protection of
  8. Jupiter, the closest of the giant planets to Earth, has solid surface and is surrounded by zones of intense radiation. a. not b. nor c. no d. neither
  9. Earthquakes can damage a tree violently, and it can take several years for the tree to heal. a. to cause shaking b. when shaking it causes c. by causing it to shake d. to cause to shake it
  10. Volcanoes are divided into three main groups, based on their shape and the type of material they . a. are made b. made of c. are made of d. make of
Section B
Directions: each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked (a), (b), (c) and (d). Identify the part of the sentences that is incorrect Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)
  11. Though both (a) cats and dogs existed before man, without (b) man neither one group and (c) the other would have developed (d) so many varieties.
  12. Although they (a) reflect a strong social conscience, Arthur Miller’s stage works are typical (b) more concerned (c) with individuals than with (d) system.
  13. Antique collecting became (a) a significant pastime in the 1800’s (b) when old object (c) began to be appreciated (d) for their beauty as well as for their historical importance.
  14. The importance of environmental stimuli (a) in the development of coordination between (b)
sensory input and motor response varies according to (d) species to species.
  15. A mortgage enables a person (a) to buy (b) property without paying for it outright(c); thus more people are able to enjoy to own (d) a house.
  16. A number of (a) the American Indian languages spoken (b) at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late fifteen (c) century have become extinct (d).
  17. Numerous (a) types of cells, such as skin cells and white blood cells (b), have (c) the power reproduce (d) asexually.
  18. One of the many machines invented (a) in the late nineteenth century, none (b) had a great (c) impact on the United States economy than the automobile (d).
  19. Members of a nation’s foreign service represent (a) that country’s interests (b) abroad and report on (c) the conditions, trends, and policies of the country which (d) they are stations.
  20. During the 1940’s science and engineering had an impact on the way (a) music reach (b) its (c) audience and even influenced the way in which (d) it was composed.
Academic reading practice test (60 points)
Reading passage 1 Questions 1-12 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-12 which are based on Reading Passage
  1. Questions 1-4 The reading passage below has five sections. Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-viii) in boxes 29-32 on your answer sheet. List of headings (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) The workers and their families The managers of the Snowy Mountains Scheme The workers’ problems The unique nature of the scheme Why the Snowy Mountains Scheme began The people who came to the Snowy Mountains Scheme Learning a new language The dangers of the job
Example SECTION 1 Answer v
  1. SECTION 2
  2. SECTION 3
  3. SECTION 4
  4. SECTION 5 THE DAMS THAT CHANGED AUSTRALIA Section 1 Inland Australia has had a problem with drought from the time of white settlement in 1788 until today, and this is why the Snowy Mountains Scheme was conceived and founded. Before the Snowy Scheme a large proportion of the snowfields on the roof of Australia melted into the
Snowy River every year, and the water flowed into the sea, not into the dry interior where people needed it so desperately. This was first recognized by the Polish geologist and explorer Strezlecki in 1840, who commented that there could be no development of the inland without irrigation. The river would have to be diverted if irrigation were to succeed. Before Federation in 1901, Australia consisted of a group of colonies, all anxious to protect their own interests. After federation the states retained rights to the water, and thus to what might happen to the rivers. Arguments between Mew South Wales, Victoria and South Australia led to a deadlocked Premiers’ Conference in Mountains Hydro-electric Power Act just two years later, on July
  7. the project was officially commenced on October 17 that year, barely three months after the Act had been passed. The scheme set out to harness water for electricity and to divert it back to the dry inland areas for irrigation. To do this, thousands of kilometers of tunnels had to be drilled through the mountains, and sixteen major dams and seven hydro-electric power stations built over a period of nineteen years. The first of these was Guthega Power Station, commissioned in 1954, and the last, Tumut III. Section 2 The Snowy Mountains Scheme was to alter the face of Australia forever. One important change was the recruitment people from outside Australia to work on the scheme. In 1949, while the world was still recovering from the effects of World War II (1939 to 19
  45), the Australian government needed immense numbers of people to work on the Snowy. It sought labour from overseas, and 60,000 of the 100,000 people who worked on the scheme came from outside the country. They came from thirty different countries: from Italy, Yugoslavia, and Germany, from sophisticated cities like Budapest, Paris and Vienna, and from tiny hamlets. These European workers left countries which had fought against each other during the war, and which had vastly different cultures, and they found themselves in a country which was still defining itself. They were adventurous young men, some highly skilled, some not, and they came to a place which offered both enormous challenges and primitive conditions. Many were housed in tents in the early days of the scheme, although some fortunate men were placed in barracks. The food was basic, female company extremely scarce and entertainment lacking. Section 3 Many new arrivals spoke only limited English, and were offered English classes after work. The men needed primarily to understand safety instructions, and safety lectures were conducted in English and other languages. In fact a great deal of communication underground was by sign language, especially when the conditions were noisy. The signs were peculiar to the business at hand: for instance, a thumb placed near the mouth meant water, but did not indicate whether the water needed on the drill the man was using, or for a drink. The constant reference to the men who worked on the Snowy is appropriate because few women worked on the scheme, and those who were employed usually held office jobs. Women, however, were active in the community, and the members of the Country Women’s Association gave English lessons. Other English instruction was provided by The Australia Broadcasting Commission which ran daily broadcasts to help the newcomers with the language. Section 4 These circumstances could have caused great social trouble, but there were relatively few serious
problems. The men worked long and hard, and many saved their money with a view to settling in Australia or returning home. At a reunion in 1999 many were happy to remember the hardships of those days, but it was all seen through a glow of achievement. This satisfaction was felt not only by the men who worked directly on the project, but by the women, many of whom had been wives and mothers during the scheme, and indicated that they had felt very much part of it. The children of these couple went to school in Happy Jack, a town notable for having the highest school in Australia, and the highest birthrate. In one memorable year there were thirty babies born to the eighty families in Happy Jack. Older children went to school in Cooma, the nearest major town.. Section 5 The scheme is very unlikely to be repeated. The expense of putting the power stations underground would now be prohibitive, and our current information about ecology would require a different approach to the treatment of the rivers. Other hydro-electric schemes like the Tennessee Valley Authority preceded the Snowy Mountains Scheme, and others have followed. The Snowy Mountains Scheme is the only hydro-electric scheme in the world to be totally financed from the sale of its electricity. As well as being a great engineering feat, the scheme is a monument to people from around the world who dared to change their lives. Some are living and working in Australia, many have retired there, some have returned to their countries of origin. Every one of them contributed to altering Australian society forever. Question 5-8 Complete the table below. Write a date or event for each answer. Use no more than THERE WORDS OR NUMBERS for each answer. Write your answer in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
DATE(Year) 5 example 6 7 8 1939-1945
EVENT White settlement begins World War II Snowy Mountains Scheme begins Tumut III Power Station commissioned
1999
Question 9-12 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer? In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet write: YES if the statement agrees with the writer NO if the statement does not agree with the writer NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage
  9. The Snowy Mountains Scheme was designed to meet Australia’s energy needs.
  10. Few women played a direct part in the development of the Snowy Mountains Scheme.
  11. The Snowy Mountains Scheme has led to a new set of environmental problems.
  12. The Snowy Mountains Scheme may be considered the beginning of a multicultural Australia.
Reading Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13-26 which are based on Rending Passage
  2. Power from the Earth A. Geothermal power refers to the generation of electrical power from the tapping of heat
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
sources found well below the earth’s surface. As most people know, if a hole were to be drilled deep into the earth, extremely hot, molten rock would soon be encountered. At depths of 30 to 50 km, temperatures exceeding 1000 degrees Celsius prevail. Obviously, accessing such temperatures would provide a wonderful source for geothermal power. The problem is, such depths are too difficult to access-drilling down some 30 or more kilometers is simply too costly with today’s technology. Fortunately, sufficiently hot temperatures are available at considerably shallower depths. In certain areas, where the earth’s surface had been altered over time- through, for example, volcanic activity-temperatures exceeding 300 degrees Celsius can be found at depths of a mere 1 to 3 km, which can be feasibly accessed. These particular areas are potentially ideal for the generation of electricity through geothermal means. It is possible to explain geothermal power penetration as a steam power system that utilizes the earth itself as a boiler. When water is sent down to the depths of 1 to 3 km, it returns to the surface as steam and is capable of generating electricity. Electricity generated in this manner hardly produces any carbon dioxide or other waste materials. If the steam and hot water are routed back underground, the generation of electricity can be semipermanent in nature. Furthermore, geothermal power can provide a stable supply of electricity unlike other natural energy sources such as solar power and wind power, which both rely heavily on weather conditions. Accordingly, the generation of electricity through geothermal power is four to five times more efficient than through solar power. As for wind power, geothermal power is some two times more cost effective. Only the generation of hydroelectric power comes close the cost of power production from each is about the same. Although geothermal power generation appears to be a most attractive option, development has been slow. The world’s first successful attempt at geothermal power generation was accomplished in Italy in 19
  04.power generation in Japan first started in 1925 at Beppu City. Since that time, countries as diverse as Iceland and New Zealand have joined the list of n
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