2008 年重庆大学博士入学考试英语试卷
(Time Limit: 180 minutes) Part I: Reading Comprehension 40 % Directions: Read the following passages carefully and then select the best answer from the four choices given to answer the questions or to complete the statements that follow each passage. Write your answer on your Answer Sheet. Passage One
Problems and discouragements will face the leader, but he can overcome them with staying power. It seems as if many of the world’s famous people faced some of the greatest difficulties and discouragements in carrying out their visions. Christopher Columbus, for instance, concluded from the information he acquired from his travels and from studying charts and maps, that the earth was round and that he could reach Asia by sailing west. But he needed a patron to finance such an expedition. He first tried John II., King of Portugal, without success, and then, the Count of Medina Celi in Spain. The Count encouraged Columbus for two years, but never actually provided him with the money and supplies he needed. Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile in Spain, were then contacted. A review of Columbus’ plans by a committee appointed by the queen resulted in the conclusion that his ideas were vain and impractical. But they kept talking. After a better part of a decade of trying to find a patron, Columbus was in despair, but he didn’t stop. He had staying power. He believed in his mission, but he held out for high terms from Ferdinand and Isabella. He asked that the rank of admiral be bestowed on him right away and that he be made viceroy of all that he should discover. In addition, he would receive one-tenth of all the precious metals discovered within his admiralty. His conditions were rejected and negotiations were again interrupted. Columbus left for France. However, the queen had a change of mind and sent for him. In April, 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to subsidize the expedition on Columbus’ terms. It wasn’t until 12, October that they landed on North America. Columbus did not visit the Grand Khan of Cathay as he had hoped. But he did discover two new continents. He was successful because he had staying power.
  1. What was the attitude of the king and queen of Castile toward Columbus’ plan of expedition? A. Concerned B. Indifferent C. Optimistic D. Disapproval
  2. Who finally patronized Columbus? A. Count of Median Celi B. John II, King of Portugal C. King and queen of Spain D. King and queen of Castile
  3. Which of the following statements was not mentioned in the passage? A. Columbus wanted to share what he should discover. B. Columbus firmly demanded that he be the commander of the voyage fleet. C. The king and queen of Castile didn’t accept Columbus terms at the very beginning. D. Columbus got financial help from the queen because he gave up his high terms.
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  4. The author takes the story of Columbus as an example to show that . A. Leaders need staying power. B. Columbus had enough staying power. C. One can’t do without saying power. D. Staying power cannot ensure success.
  5. What does the word “vision” in the first paragraph most probably mean? A. sight B. television C. future plan D. imagination
Passage Two
The growth strategy is a corporate-level strategy that seeks to increase the level of the organization’s operations. This includes increasing such popular quantitative measures as sales revenues, number of employees, and market share. Growth can be achieved through direct expansion, vertical integration, horizontal integration, or diversification. Growth through direct expansion is achieved by internally increasing a firm’s sales, production capacity, or workforce. No other firms are acquired or merged with; instead, the company chooses to grow by itself through its own business operations. For instance, McDonald’s has pursued a growth strategy by way of direct expansion. The company has grown by awarding franchises(经营许可) to people who are willing to be trained in the McDonald’s way and by opening company-owned outlets. A company might also choose to grow by vertical integration, which is an attempt to gain control of input (backward vertical integration), output (forward vertical integration), or both. In backward vertical integration, the organization attempts to gain control of its inputs by becoming its own supplier. For instance, United Airlines has created its own in-flight food service business. In forward vertical integration, the organization gains control of its outputs (products or services) by becoming its own distributor. For example, Gateway Computer’s retail stores are an example of an organization controlling its distribution. In horizontal integration, a company grows by combining with other organizations in the same industry ― that is, combining operations with competitors. For instance, H,J, Heinz, Inc., the food-processing company, combined operations with an organic baby food company, Earth’s Best, to help its own Heinz baby foods division become more competitive. Because combining with competitors might decrease the amount of competition in an industry, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission assesses the impact of such proposed growth action and must approve any proposed horizontal integration strategy. Other countries have similar restrictions. Finally, an organization can grow through diversification, either related or unrelated. Related diversification is when a company grows by merging with or acquiring firms in different but related industries. For example, American Standard Cos. is in a variety of businesses including bathroom fixtures, air-conditioning and heating units, plumbing parts, and brakes for trucks. Unrelated diversification is when a company grows by merging with or acquiring firms in different and unrelated industries. For example, Lancaster Colony Corporation makes salad dressing, car mats and candles. These industries are different and unrelated.
  6. What is this passage mainly about? A. How McDonald’s has become successful.
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  7.

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B. How companies have become successful. C. How companies can develop their businesses. D. How companies compete with each other. What is “direct expansion”? A. A company develops its own business into a bigger scale. B. A company acquires another company. C. A company merges with another company. D. A company grows without increasing its workforce. Which of the following is not true of “vertical integration”? A. A company attempts to supply its own inputs. B. A company attempts to sell its own products. C. A company attempts to provide service. D. A company attempts to enter another industry. If a company adopts the method of “horizontal integration”, it attempts to . A. acquire a very different company B. acquire a similar company C. acquire a sales company D. acquire a distribution company Which of the following phrases is closest in meaning to the word “diversification”? A. merging with or acquiring firms B. either related or unrelated C. a variety of businesses D. a company grows
Passage Three
In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools,surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 American preschool teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents (答问卷者) listed "to give children a good start academically" as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the American respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents. In the recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented (强调 个性发展的) Americans listed group experience as one of their top three choices. An emphasis on the importance of the group seen in Japanese early childhood education continues into elementary school education.
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Like in American, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary school. Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children's chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens.
  11. We learn from the first paragraph that many American believe . A. Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents. B. Japan’s economic success is a result of its scientific achievements. C. Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction. D. Japan’s higher education is superior to theirs.
  12. Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to . A. problem solving B. group experience C. parental guidance D. individually-oriented development
  13. In Japan’s preschool education, the focus is on . A. preparing children academically B. developing children’s artistic interests C. tapping children’s potential D. shaping children’s character
  14. Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to . A. broaden children’s horizon B. cultivate children's creativity C. lighten children's study load D. enrich children's knowledge
  15. Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university-based kindergartens? A. They can do better in their future studies. B. They can accumulate more group experience there. C. They can be individually oriented when they grow up. D. They can have better chances of getting a first-rate education.
Passage Four
Now custom has not been commonly regarded as a subject of any great importance. The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact, it is the other way around. Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behavior more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions. Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief and the very great varieties it may manifest. No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probings he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his
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particular traditional customs. John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behavior of the individual as over against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue over against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the language of his family. When one seriously studies axial orders that have had the opportunity to develop independently, that becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation. The life history of the individual is first and foremost an adjustment to the patterns and standards traditionally handed down in his community. From the moment of his birth the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behavior. By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities.
  16. The author thinks the reason why custom has been ignored in the academic world is that. A. custom reveals only the superficial nature of human behavior B. the study of social orders can replace the study of custom C. people are still not aware of the important role that custom plays in forming our world outlook D. custom has little to do with our ways of thinking
  17. Which of the following is true according to John Dewey? A. An individual can exercise very little influence on the cultural tradition into which he is born. B. Custom is the direct result of the philosophical probings of a group of people. C. An individual is strongly influenced by the cultural tradition even before he is born. D. Custom represents the collective wisdom which benefits the individual.
  18. T
 

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