一.related conception (相关概念)

  1.名词: 表示人或事物的名称的词叫名词。
  2.名词在句子当中一般可以作什么成分? The boy is li Ming. 主语 表语 Mr. Liang , a 24-year-old boy, teaches us English . 主语 同位语 宾语
名词在句中主要作主语、宾语、表语和 同位语。

  3.什么是名词性从句? 在英语的句子结构中,本来该由名词充当的主语、宾 语、表语和同位语,由一个句子来充当,这个句子就叫 名词性从句。 名 词 性 从 句 宾语从句 ( The Object Clause) 表语从句 ( The Predicative Clause) 同位语从句 ( The Appositive Clause) 主语从句 ( The Subject Clause)
主语从句
在复合句中作主句的主语. 在复合句中作主句的主语 引导词有连词that (that 不可省略 whether; 不可省略), 引导词有连词 连接代词有who, what ,which; 连接代词有 连接副词 when ,where, how, why 等.如: 如
  1).连接词: that, whether He is a famous singer. It is known to us.
  1.That he is a famous singer is known to us. (It is known to us that he is a famous singer.)
Will we visit the Great Wall tomorrow? It has not been decided. Whether we will visit the Great Wall has not been decide. He will win the game. Will he win the game? It is certain. It is not certain.
That he will win the game is certain. It is certain that he will win the game. Whether he will the game is not certain.

  2).连接代词: who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever,whatever, whichever Whose bag is it ? It can`t be told. Whose bag it is can`t be told. What does he need? It is money. What he needs is money. 无论你刚才说什么都是对的. Whatever you said is all right.

  3).连接副词: when, where, why, how, how many, how much how long, how soon, how often When will we start tomorrow? It will be told soon. When we will start tomorrow will be told soon. 我们将怎样制定计划已经被老师解释清楚了. How we will make the plan has been explained clearly by the teacher. 为什么他来这里还是不被人所知道. Why he comes here is not known.
  1.为什么有时侯用that, whether,有时侯用连接代词 , 或 着有时候用连接副词?
  2.它的语序有没有变化?

  2.总结:

  1).主语从句一律用陈述句语序,即主语在前,谓 语在后. When will he come is not known. 错误 When he will come is not known. 但是 what is the matter 和 what is wrong 不可 改变语序
  2).连接词that在从句中无实际意义,起引导作用, 不作任何成分,但不能省略. He will not come to the meeting this evening is true. 错误 That he will not come to the meeting this evening is true.

  3).whether可以引导主语从句 解释为”是否”,但if不能.
  4).whoever, whatever, whichever等词可以引导主 语从句, 但no matter who, no matter what 等不能, 它们只能引导让步状语从句.
  5).为避免主语冗长,句子头重脚轻,经常用it作形式主语, 主语从句放在后面作真正的主语. 例: It is well known/reported/thought/said/… that… It is clear/necessary/certain/true/doubtful/… that… It is a pity/a shame/an honour/… that… It doesn’t matter whether…/It seems that… It happens that…
宾语从句
在复合句中作主句的宾语,放在实义动词或介词的后 在复合句中作主句的宾语 放在实义动词或介词的后 引导词有连词that (that 常可省略 常可省略),whether, if; 面.引导词有连词 引导词有连词 代词有who, whose,what ,which; 代词有 副词有when ,where, how, why 等.如: 副词有 如 We believe (that) he is honest. I told him (that) I would come back soon. He said (that)he would go there the next day and that his family wouldn’t go there
总结:

  1.宾语从句的引导词:
宾语从句的连接词与引导主语从句的连接词相同.

  2.注意点

  1).宾语从句一律用陈述句的语序.
  2).引导宾语从句的连词that也无实际意义,多数 情况下可以省略.
  3).whether和if都可以引导宾语从句 但: (
  1).当whether后紧跟or not时,不用if. 例: I don’t know whether I will stay or not. (
  2).介词后面的宾语从句不能用if. 例: I worry about whether I hurt her feeling.

  3.放句首,解释为“是否” Whether she will go home is not unknown.
  4.表语从句解释为” 是否“ 用whether
The question is whether we can collect enough money.

  4).that在宾语从句中的省略与保留
(
  1).在主+谓+it(形式宾语)+宾补+that从句(真正宾语) 的 句型中不省略. 例: We must make it clear that we mean what we say. (
  2).由连词and连接的两个由that引导的宾语从句中, 第一个that 可以省略,第二that不能省. He told me (that) he would come and that he would come on time.
表语从句
在复合句中作主句的表语,常放在 动词的后面 在复合句中作主句的表语 常放在be动词的后面 常放在 动词的后面. 引导词有连词that (that 不可省略 不可省略),whether; 代 引导词有连词 词有who, what ,which;副词 when ,where, how, 词有 副词 why 等.如: 如 The problem is that we didn’t get in touch with him. This is how Henry solved the problem. His suggestion is that we (should) finish the work at once.
如果句子的主语是suggestion,advice.order等名词时 后面引导 等名词时,后面引导 如果句子的主语是 等名词时 的表语从句用should+动词原形 动词原形,should可省略 可省略. 的表语从句用 动词原形 可省略

  2.注意点

  1). 表语从句一律用陈述句的语序.
  2).表语从句的引导词that无实际意义,但不能省略.
  3).表语从句只能用whether,而不能用if 引导. What many people are worried about is whether we will be able to build a better future. 今天早上他迟到的原因是因为路上行人太多. The reason why he was late this morning is because that there was a lot of traffic on the road. The reason why + 句子 be that + 从句. For +名词
The reason why he was late this morning is that there was a lot of traffic on the road.
或 This / it /that/ is because + 从句…等句型.
He was late this morning. That was because there was a lot of traffic on the road.
同位语从句 在句中起同位语的作用. 在句中起同位语的作用 一般放在名词 fact , news , idea , promise, thought , suggestion 等之后,用以说明或解释前面的名词.引导词有连 词 that ;少数情况下也可用连接副词how when where 等.如 :

  1.The thought that we might succeed excited us.
  2.The idea that they should try a second time is worth considering.
  3.The suggestion that the plan (should) be delayed will be discussed tomorrow. 名词suggestion,advice.order等词后的同位语从句的谓语动词 名词 等词后的同位语从句的谓语动词 要用should+动词原形 动词原形,should可省略 可省略. 要用 动词原形 可省略
  4.I have no idea when he will be back.
注意
  1.that引导的同位语从句前面的名词常见的有:idea, fact, news, belief, thought, doubt, suggestion, proof, message, order, conclusion, desire, theory, truth, word, hope, information等.

  2.that 在从句中只是起引导作用, 不作任何成分.
I
名词性从句的种类 主语从句
?
  1.When we will start is not clear. ?
  2.Mrs Black won’t believe that her son has become a thief. 宾语从句 ?
  3. My idea is that we should do it right now. 表语从句 ?
  4.I had no idea that you were her friend.
同位语从句
一、同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处

  1、两种从句都可以译成定语 、 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match
is encouraging. (同位语从句) 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞 消息令人鼓舞。 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。 The news that you told us is really encouraging. (定语从句)你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。
一、同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处

  2、两种从句都可以用that引导 、两种从句都可以用 引导 e.g. The suggestion that students should learn something
practical is worth considering. (同位语从句) 同位语从句) 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑 建议值得考虑。 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。 The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical. (定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学些实 定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学些实 用的东西。 用的东西。
二、同位语从句与定语 从句的不同之处 从句的不同之处

  1、从句的作用不同:同位语从句用来进一步 从句的作用不同: 说明前面名词的内容;定语从句用来修饰、 说明前面名词的内容;定语从句用来修饰、 限定前面的名词。 限定前面的名词。
e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. (从句说明“消息”的内容:我们队 从句说明“消息”的内容: 取得了决赛胜利。 取得了决赛胜利。) The news that you told us is really encouraging. 从句对“消息”加以限定: 你告诉我们的, (从句对“消息”加以限定:是你告诉我们的,而非 来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。) 来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。)
二、同位语从句与定语 从句的不同之处
引导从句的关联词that的功能不同:that 的功能不同:
  2、引导从句的关联词 的功能不同 引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词, 引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词,不充当任 何成分;而引导定语从句的that是关系代词, 是关系代词, 何成分;而引导定语从句的 是关系代词 既指代先行词又须在从句中充当成分。 既指代先行词又须在从句中充当成分。
e.g.
  1) Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test. (that 不充当任何成分) 不充当任何成分)
  2) Dad made a promise that excited all his children. 指代promise,又在从句中充当主语。) (that指代 指代 ,又在从句中充当主语。)
Tell the function of the following sentences.
a.subject b. object c. predicative d. appositive(同位语)

  1.The idea that England stands for Fish& Chips,Speakers’ Corner ,Big Ben and the Tower of London is past. appositive
  2.The fact that Great Britain is made up of three countries is still unknown to many. appositive
  3.The result of so much French influence was that the English language ended up with many French words such as table, animal and age.
predicative

  4.Some people feel that Wales is an ancient fairy land. object
  5.That most of these are now threatened and may disappear is a serious matter to the people in Britain.
subject

  6.They realise that it is of great value to record and teach them to the younger generation. object
Tell the difference
NCAppositive

  1.The news that the plane would take off on time made everybody happy.
AC

  2.The news that is spreading around the airport is that a heavy storm is coming.
NCPredicative NCAppositive

  3.The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering.
  4.The suggestion that they are considering is that students should learn something practical.
NCPredicative AC
Practice
I. Tell the function of the clauses in the following sentences 说出下列从句的功能: 说出下列从句的功能:A: Appositive(同位语); (同位语) B: Attributive(定语) (定语)
  1. His proposal that we go there on foot is acceptable.
  2. Many teachers hold the view that teenagers should not spend too much time online.
B
  3.The first request that he made was to ask for freedom.

  4. Do you have any idea where we will be sent?
B
  5. Is this the company where your father works? B
  6. This is the reason that he gave for his absence.

  7. He made an excuse that his car broke down on the way.
II. Choose the best answer

  1.They expressed the hope they would come over to China. A. which B. that C. whom D. when
  2.The fact he didn’t see Tom yesterday is true. A. that B. which C. when D. what
  3.I have no idea he will come back. A. where B. when C. what D. that
II. Choose the best answer

  4.The news surprised everybody yesterday now proves to be false. A. that B. when C. what D. how
  5.One of the men held the view the book said was right. A. what that B. that which C. that what D. which that
  6.Word has come some American guests will come for a visit to our college next week. A. what B. whether c. that D. which
II. II.语序问题

  1.The photographs will show you .(MET
  89) ) A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like

  2.He askedfor a violin. (MET
  92) ) A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid
单项填空

  1.The question is the film is worth seeing. C A. if B. what C. whether D. how
  2.They received orders the work be done at once. D A .which B. when C. / D .that C
  3.The reason I have to go is my mother is ill in bed. A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because
  4. I can’t understand is she wants to change her mind. A A. What; why B. W
 

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