六级真题(大连海事大学研究生考试阅读题之一)
Beauty has always been regarded as something praiseworthy. Almost everyone thinks attractive people are happier and healthier, have better marriages and have more respectable occupations. Personal consultants give them better advice for finding jobs. Even judges are softer on attractive defendants (被告). But in the executive circle, beauty can become a liability. While attractiveness is a positive factor for a man on his way up the executive ladder, it is harmful to a woman. Handsome male executives were perceived as having more integrity than plainer men; effort and ability were thought to account for their success. Attractive female executives were considered to have less integrity than unattractive ones; their success was attributed not to ability but to factors such as luck. All unattractive women executives were thought to have more integrity and to be more capable than the attractive female executives. Interestingly, though, the rise of the unattractive overnight successes was attributed more to personal relationships and less to ability than was that of attractive overnight successes. Why are attractive women not thought to be able? An attractive woman is perceived to be more feminine (女性的) and an attractive man more masculine (男性的) than the less attractive ones. Thus, an attractive woman has an advantage in traditionally female jobs, but an attractive woman in a traditionally masculine position appears to lack the “masculine” qualities required. This is true even in politics. “When the only clue is how he or she looks, people treat men and women differently,” says Ann Bowman, who recently published a study on the effects of attractiveness on political candidates. She asked 125 undergraduates to rank two groups of photographs, one of men and one of women, in order of attractiveness. The students were told the photographs were of candidates for political offices. They were asked to rank them again, in the order they would vote for them. The results showed that attractive males utterly defeated unattractive men, but the women who had been ranked most attractive invariably received the fewest votes.
  26. The word “liability” (Para.
  1. Line
  4) most probably means “”. A) misfortune B) instability C) disadvantage D) burden
  27. In traditionally female jobs, attractiveness . A) reinforces the feminine qualities required B) makes women look more honest and capable C) is of primary importance to women D) often enables women to succeed quickly
  28. Bowman’s experiment reveals that when it comes to politics, attractiveness . A) turns out to be an obstacle B) affects men and women alike C) has as little effect on men as on women D) is more of an obstacle than a benefit to women
  29. It can be inferred from the passage that people’s views on beauty are often . A) practical B) prejudiced C) old-fashioned D) radical
  30. The author writes this passage to . A) discuss the negative aspects of being attractive
B) give advice to job-seekers who are attractive C) demand equal rights for women D) emphasize the importance of appearance
  26. C
  27. A
  28. D
  29. B
  30. A

  2(大连海事大学研究生考试阅读题之一) 2005 Text 2
考研真题
Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters know insisted that we didn't know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers million went to early graves.
There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, House, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely warming and that manthe problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel's report “Science never has all the answers .But science does provide us with the best available .But our guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on provide the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions.”
Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming This is incomplete, that it's Ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is a dangerous game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now.
Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they researchcontinue to press for more research-a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”.
To serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research But research alone is inadequate. If the Administration won't take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures .A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry Byrd is a promising start Many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants is to meet our energy needs. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound.

  26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that [A]. there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death. [B]. the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant.
[C]. people had the freedom to choose their own way of life. people [D]. antismoking people were usually talking nonsense.
  27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as [A]. a protector. [B]. a judge. [C]. a critic. [D]. a guide.
  28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, paragraph
  4) Endless [A]. Endless studies kill action. [B]. Careful investigation reveals truth. [C]. prudent planning hinders. decision[D]. Extensive research helps decision-making.
  29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about [A]. Offer aid to build cleaner power plants. [B]. Raise public awareness of conservation. [C]. Press for further scientific research. [D]. Take some legislative measures.
  30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because suffered [A]. they both suffered from the government's negligence. [B]. a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former. [C]. the outcome of the latter aggravates the former. [D]. both of them have turned from bad to worse. 重点词汇: 重点词汇: prudent ??????????????adj. 谨 慎的。 prudent 慎的。It's prudent to take a thick coat in cold weather when you go out. 在寒冷的天气下外出时 带 上 件 厚 外 套 是 谨 慎 的 。 名 词 形 式 prudence 审慎。 记忆: ?????????????n. 审慎 。 记忆 : rude 粗鲁的,无礼的, 粗鲁的粗鲁的,无礼的,p 不-rude 粗鲁的-ent 形容词后缀 paralysis ???????????????n. 瘫 麻痹。 para-侧面。
  2。 痪, 麻痹。 para-侧面。参见 2003 年 Text
  2。 n.v.释意 释意) paraphrase ???????????? (n.v.释意) para-前缀表 在旁边、 “在旁边、 辅助”phrase , 即 para+phrase, para+phrase, para辅助” 短语;用短语表达” 用短语辅助表达”→ 即“短语;用短语表达”,故“用短语辅助表达”→ 释意。 paraparagraph( 释意。以 para-为前缀的单词还有 paragraph(文章 的段、 短评) parameter( 的段、节;短评)←para+graph 写;parameter(参 数 ) ← para+meter 计 量 ; parasite ( 寄 生 虫 ) ← 地点。 para+site 地点。 分析, analysis ????????????? n. 分析 , 分解。 记忆: -a-lysis, an- lysis, 后缀同上, 分析成一个 an,a。 an,a。 分解。 记忆: an 后缀同上, 联 想 : 反 义 词 synthesis 综合, ??????????????n. 综合, 合成 take the legislative initiative take the initiative 带 头 , 开 始 着 手 took the problem.开始 initiative in trying to solve the problem.开始 着手试图解决这个问题 initiative ?????????????? n. 主 。 动 名 词 形 式 initiate ????????????vt. 开 始 , 发 动 , 传 授 开始, v. 开始, 发起
legislative ?????????????????? adj. 立 法的, 立法机关。 法的, 立法机关的 n. 立法机关。参见 1999 Passage 立法; 法规) 4 。 legislation ????? ( 立法 ; 法规 ) 看作 leg+is+lat(e)+ion, leg+is+lat(e)+ion, 词根 法律” 参 allegation leg “法律” ( 宣称, ),is 迟的, 宣称,2003 年 Text
  2),is 是,late 迟的,-ion 名 词后缀, 法律是迟的”→旧法律难以适应新事物→ ”→旧法律难以适应新事物 词后缀,“法律是迟的”→旧法律难以适应新事物→ 所以要不断“立法”→“立法”之产物即“法规” ”→“立法 所以要不断“立法”→“立法”之产物即“法规”。 难句解析: 难句解析: National ①The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is manlargely man-made. panel, 主干部分是 The latest was a panel,表语 panel 后接有两个定语成分: 后接有两个定语成分: from 的介词短语和含 enlisted 的过去分词, 白宫召集的、 的过去分词,即“白宫召集的、来自国家科学院的专 家团” 其中第二个定语成分中又包含一个不定式结 家团” 其中第二个定语成分中又包含一个不定式结 , 表目的, 为了告诉我们……而召集的( ……而召集的 构,表目的,即“为了告诉我们……而召集的(专家 团)。 ” 翻译: 翻译:最近的行动是由白宫召集了一批来自国家科学 院的专家团,他们告诉我们, 院的专家团,他们告诉我们,地球气候毫无疑问正在 变暖,而这个问题主要是人为造成的。 变暖,而这个问题主要是人为造成的。 ②But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important the policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of actions.” present actions.” 连接的两个并列从句, 该句子的主干是由 and 连接的两个并列从句,前一分 science… with…guide; 句的主干是 science…provide us with…guide;后 critical, 一分句的主干是 it is critical,其中 it 为形式主 引导的主语从句。 语,真正的主语是 that 引导的主语从句。从句的主 base… on… 干是 our nation and the world base…policies on… judgments, 后接有两个定语结构, judgments,judgments 后接有两个定语结构,一是 引导的定语从句, 分词结构。 that 引导的定语从句,一是 concerning 分词结构。 翻译: 翻译:但是科学确实为我们的未来提供了最好的指 导,关键是我们的国家和整个的世界在做重要决策 时,应该以科学能够提供的关于人类现在的行为对未 来影响最好的判断作为依据。 来影响最好的判断作为依据。 ③Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global incomplete, warming is incomplete, that it's Ok to keep sure。 pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure。 该句子的主干是 voices now come from many quarters; 结构做比较状语,意为“ quarters;句首 Just as 结构做比较状语,意为“正 一样” 如…一样” insisting 引导的分词结构做定语修饰 ; voice, 主语 voice, 分词结构中含有两个并列的由 that 引导 的宾语从句, 的宾语从句,第二个宾语从句的真实主语是不定式结 keep… 构 to keep… 翻译:就象吸烟问题一样, 翻译:就象吸烟问题一样,来自不同领域的声音坚持 认为有关全球变暖的科学资料还不完整。 认为有关全球变暖的科学资料还不完整。 试题解析: 试题解析: 第二篇文章是一篇一般的时事性文章, 第二篇文章是一篇一般的时事性文章,这也是一篇类 考完了以后很多考生说这篇文章讲抽烟, 比,考完了以后很多考生说这篇文章讲抽烟,其实不 是的,作者讲抽烟是想说明现在的温室效应, 是的,作者讲抽烟是想说明现在的温室效应,也是一 种类比,许多人抽烟没有人去管, 种类比,许多人抽烟没有人去管,因为缺乏足够的证 咱们各国
 

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