英语科技论文
语法和修辞(表达)概要 语法和修辞(表达)
from: The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1st edition(19
  86), 2nd edition(19
  97)
一点说明
不同来源的资料, 不同来源的资料,说法不完全相同
《气象科技》英文编辑曾晓梅:“信中谈 到的问题我也注意到了。不同的书、不 同出版单位有自己的说法和做法,不同 国家的英文,差异也很大。
我在《中国科技期刊研究》上文章根据的 是几本美国大学英语课常用教学参考书 (已列作该文的参考文献),我习惯遵 守这几本书的规定。实际上,一些权威 的书和期刊上前后都不一致。现在,我 在改稿时的做法是,在两者均有根据 (或范例)时,一般来说不改,除非文 中内容是指个体还是整体非常明显。*” * 指主谓一致。
第1部分 几个语法问题 ? 科技英语写作语法错误举例 第2部分 修辞与表达 ? 英语写作表达的几个问题
平山健三 市原 孙娴柔 周春晖 冯志杰 任胜利
英语化学论文写作方法 英语论文的写作方法 实用英语科技论文写作 科技英语写作 汉英科技翻译指要 英语科技论文撰写与投稿
英文现刊以及英文学术专著
第1部分 几个语法问题
科技英语写作语法错误举例
1 2 3 4 Subject-Verb Agreements Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses Dangling Modifiers(垂悬修饰语) Awkward Omissions of Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs
1
Subject-Verb Agreements

  1)在主语中含并列连词“and”时,应 正确区分是单个主语还是并列主语。若 属前者,谓语动词为单数形式,若属后 者,谓语动词则为复数形式。 例1 Application of this technique to studies on phytoplankton biomass and its environments are described. [说明] The subject is “application”, which is singular. Application of this technique to … is described.
例 2 Description of the experimental conditions and the results of the present investigation is made in detail in this paper. 此句中的主语为description, the experimental conditions and the results是并列的,与of 构 成 介 词 短 语 作 定 语 , 故 谓 语 动 词 用 “ is made”。
例3 The experimental condition and the result of the present investigation are described in detail in this paper. 此句中的主语为the experimental condition and the result, 为并列主语,故谓语用are described.
Sometimes, two singular subjects joined by “and” cause this error. 例4 Growth and isolation of M13 virus was described → Growth and isolation of M13 virus were described.
Exception: A subject that is plural in form but singular in effect takes a singular verb. 例5 The name and address of each contributor is given on the title page. 例6 Research and development is attracting a growing number of young scientists. R&D department
(
  2) However, when two or more subjects are joined by “or”, the verb takes the number of the closest subject.
例7 Application or uses were noted. Uses or application was noted. 例8 The appropriate metal ion concentration or the rate constants were used. The rate constants or appropriate metal ion concentration was used.
当两个以上主语以 or, neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also 等组句时,谓语动词应与其最近的名词在人 称和数上保持一致。 例9 Either ethylene chlorohydrin or bromohydrin is treated with strong alkali to give ethylene oxide (与 bromohydrin 一致).
例 10 Coagulation of an AgCl precipitate occurs at the equivalence point, where neither chloride nor silver ions are in excess.(与ions一致) 例11 Not only CS2 but also CuSO4 and AgCl were purified before the use (与CuSO4 and AgCl一致)
在“there is”,“there are”句型中,主语 为复合主语时,谓语动词与靠近的主语一 致
例12 There was a professor and several students in the library. There were several students and a professor in the library.

  3)Collective nouns take a singular verb when the group as a whole is meant; in that case they are often preceded by the word “the”. Collective nouns take a plural verb when individuals of the group are meant; in that case, they are often preceded by the word “a”. contents couple dozen group majority number pair range series variety
例13 The series is arranged in order of decreasing size. [说明] Refers to the series as a unit. 例14 A series of compounds were tested. [说明] Refers to each compound.
例15 The number of metal amides synthesized was the largest to date. (Refers to the number as a unit.) A number of metal amides were synthesized. (Refers to each amide.) 例16 The series of compounds was prepared to test the hypothesis. (Refers to the series as a unit.) A series of compounds were tested. (Refers to each compound.)
例 17 A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn =500-7
  00) has been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO
  3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
→ A series of low molecular weight phenolphthalein epoxy resins ( Mn=500-7
  00) heve been prepared from phenolphthalein and epichlorohydrin using K2CO3(Na2CO
  3)/H2O as catalysts instead of NaOH/H2O.
an average of + 数词 数词(意思为平均数量有…之 多)作主语,谓语动词用复数 复数形式 复数
An average of 100 kinds of reagents were in regular supply from the company each year.
the average of + 数词 [意思为平均数(值)…] 作主语,谓语动词用单数 单数形式。 单数 The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the number of values. (= The average of a series of values is obtained simply by adding all the individual values and dividing the sum by the measurement times.)

  4) “Data” can be a singular or plural noun.
例18 Experimental data that we obtained are compared with previously reported results. [说明] Refers to the data as individual results.
例19 After the data are distributed, we can meet to discuss them. → After the data is distributed, we can meet to discuss it. [说明] Refers to the whole collection of data as one unit.
( 5 ) Units of measurement are treated as collective nouns and therefore take a singular verb.
例20 The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent were added. → The mixture was stirred, and 5 mL of diluent was added.
例21 Five grams of NaCL were added to the solution. → Five grams of NaCL was added to the solution.
例22 Three weeks are needed to complete the experiment.
→ Three weeks is needed to complete the experiment.
例23 None of the samples was soluble. →None of the samples were soluble. [说明] Refers to individuals. 例24 This group of workers are well aware of their responsibilities.
→ This group of workers is well aware of its responsibilities. [说明] Refers to the group as a unit.

  6)某些特殊变化的复数名词切不可误认为是 单 数 名 词 , 这 样 的 词 ( 如 analyses, bacteria, criteria, formulae, phenomena, spectra,data等) 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 例 25 Extensive data on the thermodynamical properties of the elements are available. 例26 The IR absorption spectra provide significant information regarding functional groups.

  7)Nouns ending in ics and denoting a scientific discipline are usually singular. dynamics mechanics kinetics physics mathematics thermodynamics Mechanics involves the application of Newton’s three laws of motion. The kinetics of electron transfer to and from photogenerated radicals was examined by laser flash photolysis. The thermodynamics is governed by the positions of the valence and conduction bands.
( 8 ) Compound subjects containing the words “each”, “every”, and “everybody” may take singular verbs. 例 27 Each flask and each holder was sterilized before use.
Both components of the compound subject must contain the words in question. Otherwise, the verb must be plural. 例28 Each student and all of the professors were invited.

  9)Sometimes, one of these words is implicit; such cases take a singular verb. 例29 Each name and address is entered into the database.
( 10 ) Indefinite pronouns themselves (or
adjectives combined with the indefinite pronoun “one”) can be the subject of the sentence.
? Those that take a singular verb are “each”, “either”, “neither”, “no one”, “every one”, “anyone”, “someone”, “everyone”, “anybody”, “somebody”, and “ everybody”.
例 30 Each was evaluated for its effect on metabolism. 例 31 Neither disrupts the cell membrane. 例 32 Regarding compounds 1-10, every one 1 10, reacts with the control agent. 例 33 Someone measures the volume every day.
? Those that take a plural verb are “several”,
“few”, “both”, “’and “many”. 例34 Several were evaluated for their effects on metabolism. 例35 Few disrupt the cell membrane. 例36 Regarding compounds 1 and 2, both react with the control agent. 例37 Many were chosen to be part of the study.
? Those that take either a singular or plural verb, depending on context, are “some”, “any”, “none”, “all”, and “most”. The number of the object of the preposition determines the number of the indefinite pronoun related to it. 例38 Some of the money was stolen. 例39 Some of the books were lost. 例40 Not all the disks are here; some were lost.
( 11 ) When a fraction is the subject of the sentence, the number of the attendant object of the preposition determines the number of the subject. 例41 One?third of the precipitate was ? dissolved. 例42 One?fourth of the electrons are ?fourth excited. 例43 The remainder of the compounds are yet to be described.

  12)Most of (plenty of , a lot of)+ 复数名词 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式; Most of (plenty of , a lot of)+ 不可数名词 作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式 Most of the better-known organic solvents are all suitable for these tests. There is plenty of distilled water in the bottle.(其中 的 water是不可数名词。)
There are plenty of test tubes on test table. There is plenty of food. There are plenty of apples. Is there a lot of support for the idea? There are a lot of tourists here.

  13) ( 13 ) When a subject and its predicative disagree in number, the verb takes the subject. number of the subject. 例 44 The preparation and structure determination of these three compounds are the topic of paper. 例45 The topic of this paper is the preparation and structure determination of these three compounds.
2 Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses 当复合句的某一从句是限制性从句,则该 从句对句子的含义是必须的,如无该从 句句子便失去意义。最好以“that”(而 非“which”)引出限制性从句。
When a clause in a compound sentence is restrictive, the clause is necessary to the sense of the sentence, the sentence would become pointless without the clause. Restrictive clauses are best introduced by “that”, not “which”.
例46 It was necessary to fined a blocking group which would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl. → It was necessary to fined a blocking group that would react with the amino group but not with the hydroxyl.
A phrase or clause is nonrestrictive if it adds information but is not essential ; that is, the sentence does not lose its meaning if the phrase or clause is deleted. Nonrestrictive phrase and clause are set off by commas. 如短语或从句只是给句子增添信息,但并非根本 性的,则为非限制性短语或从句,即如删去这 类短语或从句,句子并不失去其意义。非限制 性短语或从句前后用逗号分隔。
例47 The current-voltage curves, which are shown in Figure 6, clearly demonstrate the reversibility of all four processes.
例48 Melvin Calvin, who won the Nobel Prize in 1961, elucidated the biochemical pathways in photosynthesis. 例49 Here, the Total signal, which is the analog of standard DSC, makes it very hard to find the polymer Tg.
3 Dangling Modifiers (垂悬修饰语) 也称垂悬短语 (Dangling phrases) ? One form of a dangling modifier is a verbal phrase that not refer clearly and logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.
? The understood subject is usually the same
as in the main clause. Walking across the field, we saw a plane fly past. (= As we were walking …, we saw …) ? 与句子主语没有联系的短语修饰语,即 动词短语的逻辑主语(隐含主语)与主 句主语不一致。 ? 短语的隐含主语和主句中的主语应保持 一致。
悬垂修饰语或称悬垂短语(Dangling phrases) 是指对句子中的另一词或短语关系不清晰 并不合逻辑非谓语动词短语。人们所理解 的这类短语的逻辑主语通常与主句的主语 是一致的。 下面列举悬垂修饰语的几种情形:

  1)If a modifier precedes the subject of a sentence, it must modify that subject and be separated from it by a comma. Otherwise, it is a dangling modifier. 如果一个修饰语是在句子的主语之前,它必须 修饰那个主语,并以逗号分隔。否则就是悬
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