1984 年版高中英语课本第一册 LESSON 1 HOW MARX LEARNED FOREIGN LANGUAGES 马克思怎样学习外语 Karl Marx was born in Germany, and German was his native language. When he was still a young man, he was forced to leave his homeland for political reasons. He stayed in Belgium for a few years; then he went to France. Before long he had to move on again. In 1849, he went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work. Marx had learned some French and English at school. When he got to England, he found that his English was too limited. He started working hard to improve it. He made such rapid progress that before long he began to write articles in English for an American newspaper. In fact, his English in one of these articles was so good that Engels wrote him a letter and praised him for it. Marx wrote back to say that Engels' praise had greatly encouraged him. However, he went on to explain that he was not too sure about two things -- the grammar and some of the idioms. These letters were written in 18
  53. In the years that followed, Marx kept on studying English and using it. When he wrote one of his great works, The Civil War in France, he had mastered the language so well that he was able to write the book in English. In the 1870s, when Marx was already in his fifties, he found it important to study the situation in Russia, so he began to learn Russian. At the end of six months he had learned enough to read articles and reports in Russian. In one of his books, Marx gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language. He said when people are learning a foreign language, they should not translate everything into their own language. If they do this, it shows they have not mastered it. When they used the foreign language, they should try to forget all about their own. If they cannot do this, they have not really learned the spirit of the foreign language and cannot use it freely. LESSON 2 AT HOME IN THE FUTURE 未来的家 A medical examination without a doctor or nurse in the room? Doing shopping at home? Borrowing books from the library without leaving your home? These ideas may seem strange to you. But scientists are working hard to turn them into realities. Let us suppose we can visit a home at the end of this century. We will visit a boy named Charlie Green. He is not feeling well this morning. His mother, Mrs Green, wants the doctor to see him. That is, she wants the doctor to listen to him. She brings a set of wires to Charlie's room. These wires are called sensors. She places one sensor in his mouth and one on his chest. She puts another one around his wrist and one on his forehead. Then she plugs the sensors into a wall outlet. She says the code "TCP". This means "telephone call placed." A little light flashes on the wall. The Green's wireless telephone is ready for a call. Mrs Green says "2478", the doctor's telephone number. From a speaker on the wall comes the doctor's voice: "Good morning." "Good morning, Dr Scott," answers Mrs Green. "Charlie isn't feeling too well this morning. I've put the sensors on him. I wonder if you can examine him now." "Sure," the doctor's voice says. "Well, he doesn't have a fever. And his pulse is fine. Now, breathe deeply, Charlie."
Charlie does so. "Just a little cold," says the doctor. "Better stay inside today, Charlie. And take it easy." "Thank you, Doctor," says Mrs Green. "TCC (telephone call completed)." The light on the wall turns off. The phone call and the examination are finished. "Charlie," says Mrs Green," since you have to stay at home, why don't you do some shopping? You can pick out your new bicycle. After all, your birthday is only two weeks away." "Great," Charlie answers. Charlie and his mother sit in front of one of the visionphones. There are several in their house. "TCP," says Charlie. The word ready appears on the screen of the visionphone. "New Forest Bicycle Shop," a voice says. "May I help you?" Charlie answers, "I'd like to see your ten-speed bicycles." In the next few minutes, pictures of many models of the bicycles are flashed on the creen. The price of each model is also shown. Then the voice asks, "Are you interested in any of these models?" "Yes, I'm interested in model
  6." "Do you wish to place an order at this time?" "Not just yet," answers Mrs Green. "My son's birthday is in two weeks' time. Thank you. TCC." The visionphone shuts off. Such would be our home in the future. LESSON 3 THE BLIND MEN AND THE ELEPHANT 盲人和象 Once upon a time there were six blind men who lived in a village in India. Every day they went to the road nearby and stood there begging. They had often heard of elephants, but they had never seen one, for , being blind, how could they? One morning an elephant was led down the road where they stood. When they heard that an elephant was passing by, they asked the driver to stop the beast so that they could have a "look". Of course they could not look at him with their eyes, but they thought they might learn what kind of animal he was by touching and feeling him. For, you see, they trust their own sense of touch very much. The first blind man happened to place his hand on the elephant's side. "Well, well, " he said. "This beast is exactly like a wall." The second grasped one of the elephant's tusks and felt it. "You're quite mistaken," he said. "He's round and smooth and sharp. He's more like a spear than anything else." The third happened to take hold of the elephant's trunk. "You're both completely wrong," he said. "This elephant is like a snake, as anybody can see." The fourth opened both his arms the closed them around one of the elephant's legs. "Oh, how blind you are!" he cried. "It's very clear that he's round and tall like a tree." The fifth was a very tall man, and he caught one of the elephant's ears. "Even the blindest person must see that this elephant isn't like any of the things you name." he siad. "He's exactly like a huge fan." The sixth man went forward to feel the elephant. He was old and slow and it took him quite some time to find the elephant at all. At last he got hold of the beast's tail. "Oh, how silly you all are!" cried he. "The elephant isn't like a wall, or a spear, or a snake, or a tree; neither is he like a fan. Any man with eyes in his head can see that he's exactly like a rope." Then the driver and the elephant moved on, and the six men sat by the roadside all day, quarrelling about
the elephant. They could not agree with one another, because each believed that he knew just what the beast looked like. It is not only blind men who make such stupid mistakes. People who can see sometimes act just as foolishly. LESSON 4 GALILEO AND ARISTOTLE 伽利略和亚里斯多德 About 2300 years ago, there lived in Greece a great thinker named Aristotle. He observed that feathers fell to the ground slowly, while stones fell much faster. He thought it over carefully and concluded that heavy objects always fell faster than light ones. His conclusion certainly sounded reasonale. But we now know that it is not true. In those days people seldom did experiments to test their ideas. When they observed anything that happened, they thought about it and then drew a conclusion. Once Aristotle made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects, he taught it as a truth to his students. And because he was Aristotle, the great thinker, no one questioned his idea for almost 2000 years. Then, almost 400 years ago, an Italian scientist named Galileo began to question Aristotle's theory of falling objects. He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. He decided to do some experiments to test Aristotle's theory. Galileo lived in the city of Pisa, where there is a leaning tower about 180 feet high. From the top of the tower Galileo dropped a light ball and a heavy ball at exactly the same time. They both fell at about the same speed and hit the ground together. He tried the experiments again and again. Every time he got the same result. At last, he decided that he had found the truth about falling objects. As we know now, heavy objects and light objects fall at the same speed unless air holds them back. A feather falls slower than a stone only because the air holds the feather back more than it does the stone. When Galileo told people of his discovery, no one would belive him. But Galileo was not discouraged. He went on doing experiments to test the truth of other old ideas. He built a telescope through which he could study the skies. He collected facts that proved the earth and all the other planets move around the sun. Today we praise Galileo and call him one of the founders of modern science. He observed things carefully and never took anything for granted. Instead, he did experiments to test and prove an idea before he was ready to accept it. An experiment was done on the moon in July, 19
  71. One of the US astronauts who made the first deep space walk on the moon dropped a hammer and a feather together. They both landed on the surface of the moon at the same time. This experiment proved that Galileo's theory of falling objects is true. LESSON 5 THE LOST NECKLACE 丢失的项链 Place: a park in Paris Time: a summer afternoon in 1870 People: Mathilde Loisel, wife Pierre Loisel, husband Jeanne Forrestier, their friend (Jeanne is sitting in the park. Mathilde walks towards her, she stops and speaks to Jeanne.)
Mathilde: Good afternoon, Jeanne. Jeanne: (Looking at the other woman) I'm sorry, but I don't think I know you. Mathilde: No, you wouldn't, but many years ago you knew me well. I'm Mathilde Loisel. Jeanne: Mathilde! My old school friend. Is it possible? But yes, of course it is. Now I remember. Where have you been all these years, Mathilde? I hope you weren't ill. Mathilde: No, Jeanne, I wasn't ill. You see here an old woman. But it's because of hard work - ten years of hard work. Jeanne: But I don't understand, Mathilde. There's only one year between us; I'm thirty-five and you're thirty-four. Can hard work change a person that much? Mathilde: Yes, it can. Years of hard work, little food, only a cold room to live in and never, never a moment to rest. That has been my life for these past ten years. Jeanne: Mathilde! I didin't know. I'm sorry. But what happened? Mathilde: Well, I would rather not tell you. Jeanne: Oh, come, Mathilde .Surely you can tell an old friend. Mathilde: Well, ... Well, it was all necause of that necklace. Your necklace. Jeanne: My necklace? Mathilde: Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace? Jeanne: Let me think. Ten years ago... Oh, yes, I remember. You were going to the palace with your husband, I think. Mathilde: Right. Pierre was working in a govenrment office, and for the first time in our lives we were invited to an important ball. (The scene changed to that evening in the home of Pierre and Mathilde Loisel.) Pierre: Yes, Mathilde, we're going to the ball, the palace ball! Mathilde: I can't believe it! Piere: But it's true. Mathilde: Oh, Piere, how wonderful! But I haven't got a dress for the ball! Pierre; What does a new evening dress cost? Mathilde: Mathilde: About four hundred francs. Pierre: Four hundred! That's a lot of money. But perhaps, just this once, we'll use what we have to get a new dress for you. This ball is very important to me. I was the only person in my office who was invited. Mathilde: Thank you, Pierre, you're so kind. Oh, but there's one other thing... Pierre: What is it, Mathilde? Mathlde: I ... I have no jewelry. Pierre: Jewelry? Do you need jewelry? Why not just a flower? Mathilde: To go to the palace with just a flower is to say "I'm poor. I haven't got any jewelry." Pierre: Can't you borrow some jewelry from a friend, Mathilde? Mathilde: Which friend? My friends are all poor, too. Pierre: Let me think. How about Jeanne? She married well. Perhaps she has some. Mathilde: Ah, yes, Jeanne. She married a man with a lot of money. I'll go and see her on Friday, after I get the new dress. Pierre: I'm sure she has something you can borrow. (The scene changes back to the park. Mathilde continues to tell Jeanne her story.) Mathilde: One Friday I came to see you, Jeanne. Remember? Jeanne: Yes, Mathilde, I remember.
Mathilde: You were very kind. You brought out your jewelry and told me to take anything I wanted. Jeanne: (Smiling) You were like a little girl. Your eyes became so big. Mathilde: There were so many things and they were all beautiful. It was hard to choose. Jeanne: Until you saw the diamond necklace. Mathlde: Yes, and then I knew I wanted to borrow the necklace. I didn't want anything else, only the necklace. Jeanne: I'm sure you looked beautiful that evening, Mathilde. You were always a very pretty girl. Mathilde: Perhaps in those days I was, but everything changed after that night at the palace. Jeanne: Didn't you have a good time at that ball? Mathilde: Yes, a very good time, but that was the last time... the last happy evening for the next ten years. Jeanne: But why, Mathilde? Mathilde: On the way home I looked down at my dress and saw that the necklace was gone. I told Pierre. We returned to the palace and looked in every room, but couldn't find it. I never saw your necklace again, Jeanne. Jeanne: But Mathilde, you brought it back to me the next afternoon. I remember very well. Mathilde: Yes, Jeanne, I brought a necklace to you. It was exact
 

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