1993 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I: Structure and Vocabulary In each sentence, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choices in the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
  1. The board deemed it urgent that these files right away. [A] had to be printed [B] should have been printed [C] must be printed [D] should be printed The local health organization is reported twenty-five years ago when Dr. Audon became its first president. [A] to be set up [B] being set up [C] to have been set up [D] having been set up The school board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers for. [A] be demonstrating [B] demonstrate [C] had been demonstrating [D] have demonstrated Ted had told me that he always escapes as he has got a very fast sport car. [A] to fine [B] to be fined [C] being fined [D] having been fined More than one third of the Chinese in the United States live in California, in San Francisco. [A] previously [B] predominantly [C] practically [D] permanently Prof. Lee’s book will show you can be used in other contexts. [A] that you have observed [B] that how you have observed [C] how that you have observed [D] how what you have observed
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  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  6.

  7.
All fights because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train. [A] were canceled [B] had been canceled [C] having canceled [D] having been canceled The new secretary has written a remarkably report only in a few pages but with all the details. [A] concise [B] clear [C] precise [D] elaborate With prices so much, it’s hard for the company to plan a budget. [A] fluctuating [B] waving [C] swinging [D] vibrating

  8.

  9.

  10. Expert say walking is one of the best ways for a person to healthy. [A] preserve [B] stay [C] maintain [D] reserve
  11. Expected noises are usually more than unexpected ones of the like magnitude. [A] manageable [B] controllable [C] tolerable [D] perceivable
  12. It isn’t so much whether he works hard; the question is whether he works . [A] above all [B] in all [C] at all [D] after all
  13. There is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people that everyone agrees what constitutes a benefit to an individual. [A] on [B] with [C] to [D] in
  14. All the information we have collected in relation to that case very
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little. [A] makes up for [B] adds up to [C] comes up with [D] puts up with
  15. A really powerful speaker can the feelings of the audience to the fever of excitement. [A] work out [B] work over [C] work at [D] work up
  16. Before the students set off, they spent much time setting a limit the expenses of the trip. [A] to [B] about [C] in [D] for
  17. According to the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, wisdom comes from the of maturity. [A] fulfillment [B] achievement [C] establishment [D] accomplishment
  18. From the tears in Nedra’s eyes we can deduce that something sad . [A] must have occurred [B] would have occurred [C] might be occurring [D] should occur
  19. You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting you don’t mind taking the night train. [A] provided [B] unless [C] though [D] until
  20. Hardly a month goes by without of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among U.S. citizens. [A] words [B] a word [C] the word [D] word
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  21. If you Jerry Brown until recently, you’d think the photograph on the right was strange. [A] shouldn’t contact [B] didn’t contact [C] weren’t to contact [D] hadn’t contacted
  22. Some teenagers harbor a generalized resentment against society, which them the rights and privileges of adults, although physically they are mature. [A] deprives [B] restricts [C] rejects [D] denies
  23. I must go now. , if you want that book I’ll bring it next time. [A] Incidentally [B] Accidentally [C] Occasionally [D] Subsequently
  24. There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink. [A] much more than [B] no more than [C] no less than [D] any more than
  25. Though in San Francisco, Dave Mitchell had always preferred to record the plain facts of small-town life. [A] raised [B] grown [C] developed [D] cultivated
  26. Most electronic devices of this kind, manufactured for such purposes, are tightly packed. [A] that are [B] as are [C] which is [D] it is
  27. As for the winter, it is inconvenient to be cold, with most of furnace fuel is allowed saved for the dawn. [A] what [B] that [C] which
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[D] such
  28. Achieving a high degree of proficiency in English as a foreign language is not a mysterious without scientific basic. [A] process [B] practice [C] procedure [D] program
  29. We cannot always the wind, so new windmills should be so designed that they can also be driven by water. [A] hang on [B] count on [C] hold on [D] come on
  30. The storm sweeping over this area now is sure to cause of vegetables in the coming days. [A] rarity [B] scarcity [C] invalidity [D] variety Section II: Reading Comprehension Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (30 points)
Text 1
Is language, like food, a basic human need without which a child at a critical period of life can be starved and damaged? Judging from the drastic experiment of Frederick II in the thirteenth century, it may be. Hoping to discover what language a child would speak if he heard no mother tongue, he told the nurses to keep silent. All the infants died before the first year. But clearly there was more than lack of language here. What was missing was good mothering. Without good mothering, in the first year of life especially, the capacity to survive is seriously affected. Today no such severe lack exists as that ordered by Frederick. Nevertheless, some children are still backward in speaking. Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly. If these sensitive periods are neglected, the ideal time for acquiring skills passes and they might never be learned so easily again. A bird learns to sing and to fly rapidly at the right time, but the process is slow and hard once the critical stage has passed. Experts suggest that speech stages are reached in a fixed sequence and at a constant age, but there are cases where speech has started late in a child who eventually turns out to be of high IQ. At twelve weeks a baby smiles and makes vowel-like sounds; at twelve months he can speak simple words and understand simple commands; at eighteen months he has a vocabulary of three to fifty words. At
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three he knows about 1,000 words which he can put into sentences, and at four his language differs from that of his parents in style rather than grammar. Recent evidence suggests that an infant is born with the capacity to speak. What is special about man’s brain, compared with that of the monkey, is the complex system which enables a child to connect the sight and feel of, say, a toy-bear with the sound pattern “toy-bear.” And even more incredible is the young brain’s ability to pick out an order in language from the mixture of sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine the parts of a language in new ways. But speech has to be induced, and this depends on interaction between the mother and the child, where the mother recognizes the signals in the child’s babbling (咿呀学语), grasping and smiling, and responds to them. Insensitivity of the mother to these signals dulls the interaction because the child gets discouraged and sends out only the obvious signals. Sensitivity to the child’s non-verbal signals is essential to the growth and development of language.
  31. The purpose of Frederick II’s experiment was . [A] to prove that children are born with the ability to speak [B] to discover what language a child would speak without hearing any human speech [C] to find out what role careful nursing would play in teaching a child to speak [D] to prove that a child could be damaged without learning a language
  32. The reason some children are backward in speaking is most probably that . [A] they are incapable of learning language rapidly [B] they are exposed to too much language at once [C] their mothers respond inadequately to their attempts to speak [D] their mothers are not intelligent enough to help them
  33. What is exceptionally remarkable about a child is that . [A] he is born with the capacity to speak [B] he has a brain more complex than an animal’s [C] he can produce his own sentences [D] he owes his speech ability to good nursing
  34. Which of the following can NOT be inferred from the passage? [A] The faculty of speech is inborn in man. [B] Encouragement is anything but essential to a child in language learning. [C] The child’s brain is highly selective. [D] Most children learn their language in definite stages.
  35. If a child starts to speak later than others, he will . [A] have a high IQ [B] be less intelligent [C] be insensitive to verbal signals [D] not necessarily be backward
Text 2
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In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic (官僚主义的) management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he does not wholeheartedly participate in his work and that he is bored with it. In fact, the blueand the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management. The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction or interest in life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings. Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the tight mixture of submissiveness and independence. From that moment on they are tested again and again -- by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow-competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness. Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise” capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities -- those of love and of reason -are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.
  36. By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery” the author intends to render the idea that man is . [A] a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible [B] working in complete harmony with the rest of the society [C] an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society, though functioning smoothly [D] a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly
  37. The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that . [A] they are likely to lose their jobs [B] they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life [C] they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence [D] they are deprived of their individuality and independence
  38. From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those . [A] who are at the bottom of the society
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[B] who are higher up in their social status [C] who prove better than their fellow-competitors [D] who could keep far away from this competitive world
  39. To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should . [A] resort to the production mode of our ancestors [B] offer higher wages to the workers and employees [C] enable man to fully develop his potentialities [D] take the fundamental realities for granted
  40. The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of . [A] approval [B] dissatisfaction [C]
 

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