1995 Passage 1
Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labour, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of many services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television licence would need to be doubled, and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more. And perhaps most important of all, advertising provides a guarantee of reasonable value in the products and services you buy. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. He might fool some people for a little while through misleading advertising. He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value. Advertising does more for the material benefit of the community than any other force I can think of. There is one more point I feel I ought to touch on. Recently I heard a well-known television personality declare that he was against advertising because it persuades rather than informs. He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. Of course advertising seeks to persuade. If its message were confined merely to information ? and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the colour of a shirt is subtly persuasive ? advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. But perhaps that is what the well-known television personality wants.
  51. By the first sentence of the passage the author means that . [A] he is fairly familiar with the cost of advertising [B] everybody knows well that advertising is money consuming [C] advertising costs money like everything else [D] it is worthwhile to spend money on advertising
  52. In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising? [A] Securing greater fame. [B] Providing more jobs. [C] Enhancing living standards. [D] Reducing newspaper cost.
  53. The author deems that the well-known TV personality is . [A] very precise in passing his judgement on advertising [B] interested in nothing but the buyers' attention [C] correct in telling the difference between persuasion and information [D] obviously partial in his views on advertising
  54. In the author's opinion, . [A] advertising can seldom bring material benefit to man by providing information [B] advertising informs people of new ideas rather than wins them over [C] there is nothing wrong with advertising in persuading the buyer [D] the buyer is not interested in getting information from an advertisement 重点词汇: 重点词汇: know of 知道。I don't know him, but I know of him.我不认识他,但听说过他。 live up to 做到;不辜负。 subtly (精细地;微妙地),形容词形式为 subtle。Men always want to be a women's first love; women have a more subtle instinct; what they like is to be a man's last romance.男人总想成为女人的第一个恋人,女人则具有更微妙的本能,她 希望成为男人追求的最后一个对象。 难句解析: 难句解析:
①Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. ▲本句的主干非常简单,就是 Money is money。重点在于要看清修饰两个 money 的定语,特别是后面一个修饰语中的 as well as。 △理解本句的海王星在于了解 as well as 不是“也”的意思,其中的 well 就是一个副词表示“好”,修饰过去分词 spent,而后面的 any 指代的是 any money。 ②It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. ▲本句的主干是 It serves... to assist... distribution...,而 thereby 后面是两个由 and 连接起来的分词短语作补语,里面又有一个 make+it+adj.+to do sth.的结构。 △本句的阅读重点在于理解这几个动词之间的逻辑关系。 ③Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. ▲本句的主干是 no regular advertiser dare promote a product,前面是一个 apart from 引导的介词结构,介词宾语 the fact 后面又 有一个同位语从句。在主句中,a product 后面是一个定语从句 that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements。 △注意文中 acts 指的是“法案”,而 live up to 表示“实现, 兑现” 的意思。 另外 apart from 在这里是我们通常所说的“加法”的“除去” 。 ④If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value. ▲本句是一个条件句,主句的结构比较复杂,注意 I know 是一个非常短的定语从句,修饰 proof,而后面的两个 that 引导的是两个同位语 从句,修饰 the surest proof,前面的那个同位语从句中又有一个宾语从句。 △看清本句的基本结构是阅读的重点。同时注意作者对广告抱完全肯定的态度。 ⑤If its message were confined merely to information ? and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the colour of a shirt is subtly persuasive ? advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. ▲本句的主句是一个 if 引导的虚拟语气 If its message were confined merely to information, advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention。两个破折号中间的部分是一个补充说明成分。 △看清本句的基本结构是阅读的重点。注意作者使用了虚拟语气,显示了作者认为广告中只出现告知性信息的不可能性。 试题解析: 试题解析:
  51. [D] 这句话可直译为:将钱花在广告上是我所知道的好的花钱方式之一。意为:将钱花在广告上好或很值(worthwhile)。 该句的非比较级形式为:Money spent on advertising is money spent well.在该句中,any 指任何一种好的花钱方式(any money spent well);know of 意为:知道,所了解到的。其实,该句所陈述的内容不仅是第一段的主题思想,也是全文旨在说明的问题。在第一段 的其他部分,作者就列举了合理的广告带来的诸多方面的益处。 A 意为:他对广告的价格了如指掌。这显然不对。 B 意为:众人皆知做广告很费钱(money consuming),即:做广告很贵。 C 意为:像做其他事一样,做广告要花钱。
  52. [A] secure 在此意为:取得,获得。A 意为:获得更大知名度。这是原文所未提到的。 原文第一段历数了广告所带来的诸多益处。它直接有助于产品以合理价格迅速销出(distribution),在稳定国内市场(home market)的 同时,使产品能以有竞争力(competitive)的价格出口进入国际市场;它给人以新的消费观,从而大大地提高人们的生活标准;它增加了市场 需求(demand),扩大了劳动力(labour)市场,有效地扩大了就业。它使许多公共事业的服务价格低廉,因为,这些服务都可以利用登广告所 嫌的钱补贴其经营费用,这使得它们可以降低价格。 B 与原文内容相符。 C 意为:提高生活标准。与原文内容相符。 D 与原文内容相符。
  53. [D] 在这一题的提问部分,deem 意为:认为。选择项 D 中 partial 意为:片面的,不公平的。 文章第四段和第五段讨论了一个反对广告的著名电视工作者(television personality)的看法。他反对广告的理由是:广告是劝诱性的 (persuade),而不是客观地提供信息(inform),但是,作者认为:作这种区别有些过于细微了(excessively fine),广告当然要劝诱人们。 即使在很小的方面,也很难做到只局限于(confine... to)客观地提供信息,而且,那样的话,广告就失去了吸引力,没人会注意它。由此可见, 在作者看来,广告的这两方面很难严格地区别开来,二者是有机地结合在一起的,不能顾此失彼。 A 意为:准确地表达了他对广告的评价。这里,pass 意为:表述,表达,提出。 B 意为:只关心消费者的注意力。这里,nothing but 意为:只有,除……之外都不。 C 意为:区分劝诱与信息提供是有道理的。这里,tell the difference 意为:区分,区别。
  54. [C] 意为:广告劝诱消费者无可指责。 作者认为,毫无疑问,广告会劝诱消费者。它不仅是这样,而且应该是这样,否则,广告便失去了吸引力而没人看了。参阅第 53 题题解。 A 是不对的。正如第三段所指出的,广告给社会(community)带来的物质利益(material benefit)比其他形式都大。 B 意为:广告应给人以新的(消费)观念,而不在于说服人。这里,win over 意为:说服,争取;rather than 意为:而不是。可见, 所表达的内容与原文中作者表达的观点相反。 D 意为:消费者不关心广告所提供的信息。这与作者的观点也不同,作者仅是说:广告不能仅局限于提供客观信息,否则,就无法吸引消 费者。参阅第 53 题题解。
全文翻译: 全文翻译: 花在广告上的钱和我所知花在任何别处的钱一样值得。它直接有助于商品以合理的价格销售,由此建立稳固的国内市场,并使商品能以富 有竞争力的价格出口。它吸引人们对新观念的注意,极大地提高生活标准。广告有助于增加市场需求,从而确保对劳动力需求的增加,因此是 遏制失业的一个有效方法。它降低了多种服务费用,没有广告,每天看的报纸价格会上涨四倍,电视收视费会翻番,公共汽车或地铁票也得提 高
  20%以上。 也许最重要的是,广告为你购买的商品或服务提高了合理的价值方面的保证。除了国会制定的二十七项法案对广告词加以约束之外,没有 哪个专职广告商胆敢推销与广告承诺不符的产品。他们或许能通过误导性的广告暂时愚弄一些人,但时间不会太长,因为庆幸的是,公众有良 好的意识,他们不会一而再地去购买劣质商品。如果你看到一种商品不断地打广告,我认为这是最可靠的证明,即此商品一定与其宣传名副其 实,一定体现良好的价值。 广告给社会带来的物质利益比任何我所能想到的方式都多。我觉得有一点还得谈一谈。最近我听到一位著名电视人宣称他反对广告,因为 广告意在劝诱而非提供信息。他把两者区分得过于细微,因为广告不可避免地要劝说消费者。 如果广告的内容仅仅限于提供信息(虽说这不是不可能做到的,但它本身也是很难做的,因为哪怕是挑衬衫颜色这样的细节也带有几分劝 诱性),那会令人生厌,以致没人再去理会。但也许这就是那位著名电视人所希望看到的。
1995 Passage 2
There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language ? all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts. By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept. In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we're shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we're slow to adapt to change or that we're not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive rol
 

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