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In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet.? SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the talk.
  1. According to the talk, compulsive gambling and alcoholic addiction share . similarities because A) no actual figure of addicts has been reported B) no scientific studies have yielded effective solutions C) both affect all sectors of society D) both cause serious mental health problems
  2. The development of the gambling compulsion can be described as being A) gradual C) periodic B) slow D) radical G. A. mentioned in the talk is believed to be a(n) . A) anonymous group C) gamblers' club B) charity organization
  4. D) treatment center .

At the end of the talk, the speaker's attitude towards the cure of gambling addiction is . A) unclear B) uncertain C) optimistic D) pessimistic way.

Throughout the talk, the speaker examines the issue of gambling in a
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 A) balanced B) biased SECTION B INTERVIEW C) detached D) lengthy
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the interview.
  6. What strikes the woman most about the male robber is his A) clothes C) physique B) age D) appearance The most detailed information about the woman robber is her A) manners C) height B) talkativeness D) jewelry The interview is believed to be a bank A) receptionist B) manager . C) customer D) cashier .



Which of the following about the two robbers is NOT true? A) Both were wearing dark sweaters. B) Neither was wearing glasses. C) Both were about the same age. D) One of them was marked by a scar.

  10. After the incident the interviewee sounded A) calm and quiet B) nervous and numb SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
. C) timid and confused D) shocked and angry
Question 11 to 12 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  11. According to the news, the enormous food shortage in Iraq has the most
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 damaging effect on its A) national economy B) adult population
  12. The WFP is appealing to donor nations to A) double last year's food-aid B) raise $122 million for Iraqi people C) provide each Iraqi family with $26 a month D) help Iraq's 12 million population Question 13 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  13. As s result of the agreement, the two countries' arsenals are to be A) upgraded in reliability and safety B) reduced in size and number C) dismantled partly later this year D) maintained in their present conditions Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  14. We can infer from the news that were drug users. A) 28% B) 22% . C) young children D) national currency .
of teenagers under survey in 1993 C) 25% D) 21%

  15. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? A) Parents are asked to join in the anti-drug efforts. B) The use of both cocaine and LSD are on the increase. C) Teenagers hold a different view of drugs today. D) Marijuana is as powerful as it used to be. SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 In this section you will hear a mini lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15 minute gap filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION [30 min]? ? In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Coloured Answer Sheet. TEXT A On Society Low self-esteem pops up regularly in academic reports as an explanation for all sorts of violence, from hate crimes and street crimes to terrorism. But despite the popularity of the explanation, not much evidence backs it up. In a recent issue of Psychological Review, three researchers examine this literature at length and conclude that a much stronger link connects high self-esteem to violence. “It is difficult to maintain belief in the low self-esteem view after seeing that the more violent groups are generally the ones with higher self-esteem,” write Roy Baumeister of Case Western Reserve University and Laura Smart and Joseph Boden of the University of Virginia. The conventional view is that people without self-esteem try to gain it by hurting others. The researchers find that violence is much more often the work of people with unrealistically high self-esteem attacking others who challenge their self-image. Under this umbrella come bullies, rapists, psychopaths and members of street gangs and organized crime. The study concludes: “Certain forms of high self-esteem seem to increase one's proneness to violence. An uncritical endorsement of the cultural value of self-esteem may therefore be counterproductive and even dangerous. ... The societal pursuit of
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 high self-esteem for everyone may literally end up doing considerable harm. “ As for prison programs intended to make violent convicts feel better about themselves, “perhaps it would be better to try instilling modesty and humility,” the researchers write. In an interview with the Boston Globe, Baumeister said he believes the “self-promoting establishment is starting to crumble.” What would work better for the country is to forget about self-esteem and concentrate on self-control,” he said. In the schools, this would mean turning away from psychic boosterism and emphasizing self-esteem as a by-product of real achievement, not as an end in itself. The self-esteem movement, still entrenched in schools of education, is deeply implicated in the dumbing down of our schools, and in the spurious equality behind the idea that it is a terrible psychic blow if one student does any better or any worse than another. Let's hope it is indeed crumbling.
  16. The researchers find that there are stronger connections between . A) low self-esteem and violence C) high self-image and violence B) low self-control and violence D) high self-control and violence .

  17. The researchers would most probably agree with the following EXCEPT A) self-esteem should be promoted and encouraged B) schools should change their concept of self-esteem C) the traditional view is beginning to lose ground D) prisons should change their present practice TEXT B
Social change is more likely to occur in heterogeneous societies than in homogeneous ones, simply because there are more diverse points of view available in the formers. There are more ideas, more conflicts of interest, and more groups and organizations of different persuasions. In addition, there is usually a greater worldly interest and tolerance in heterogeneous societies. All these factors tend to promote social change by opening more areas of life to decision rather than subjecting them to authority. In a quite homogeneous society- there are fewer occasions for people to perceive the need or the opportunity for change, because everything seems to be the same and. if not satisfactory, at least customary and undisputed. Within a society, social change is also likely to occur more frequently and more readily (
  1) in the material aspects of the culture than in the non-material. for example, in technology rather than in values; (
  2) in what has been learned later in life rather
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 than what was learned early: (
  3) in the less basic, less emotional, or less sacred aspects of society than in their opposites. like religion or a system of prestige: (
  4) in the simple elements rather than in the complex ones; (
  5) in form rather than in substance: and (
  6) in elements congenial to the culture rather than in strange elements. Furthermore, social change is easier if it is gradual. For example, it comes more readily in human relations on a continuous scale rather than one with sharp dichotomies. This is one reason why change has not come more quickly to Black Americans as compared to other American minorities, because of the sharp difference in appearance between them and their white counterparts.
  18. According to the passage, the main difference between a homogeneous society and a heterogeneous one lies in . A) the number of opportunities offered B) the nature of conflicts of interest C) the awareness of the need for change D) the role of social organizations
  19. The author would most probably agree that changes are more likely to be successful in . A) production methods C) religious beliefs B) ideological concepts TEXT C One argument used to support the idea that employment will continue to be the dominant form of work, and that employment will eventually become available for all who want it. is that working time will continue to fall. People in jobs will work fewer hours in the day. fewer days in the week, fewer weeks in the year, and fewer years in a lifetime, than they do now. This will mean that more jobs will be available for more people. This, it is said, is the way we should set about restoring full employment. There is no doubt that something of this kind will happen. The shorter working week, longer holidays, earlier retirement, job-sharing -- these and other ways of reducing the amount of time people spend on their jobs +- are certainly likely to spread. A mix of part-time paid work and part-time unpaid work is likely to become a much more common work pattern than today, and a flexi-life pattern of work -involving paid employment at certain stages of life, but not at others ? will become widespread. But it is surely unrealistic to assume that this make it possible to restore full employment as the dominant form of work. D) social behavior
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 In the first place, so long as employment remains the overwhelming important form of work source of income for most people that it is today, it is very difficult to see how reductions in employees' working time can take place on a scale sufficiently large and at a pace sufficiently fast to make it possible to share out the available paid employment to everyone who wants it. Such negotiations as there have recently been, for example in Britain and Germany, about the possibility of introducing a 35-hour working week, have highlighted some of the difficulties. But, secondly, if changes of this kind were to take place at a pace and on a scale sufficient to make it possible to share employment among all who wanted it. the resulting situation ? in which most people would not be working in their jobs for more than two or three short days a week - could hardly continue to be one in which employment was still regarded as the only truly valid form of work. There would be so many people spending so much of their time on other activities, including other forms of useful work, that the primacy of employment would be bound to be called into question, at least to some extent.
  20. The author uses the negotiations in Britain and Germany as an example to A) support reductions in employees' working time B) indicate employees are unwilling to share jobs C) prove the possibility of sharing paid employment D) how that employment will lose its dominance
  21. At the end of the passage the author seems to imply that as a result of shorter working time . A) employment may not retain its usual importance B) employment may not be regarded as valid work C) people can be engaged in far less unpaid work D) people can be engaged in far more unpaid work
  22. The author's attitude towards future full employment is generally A) supportive B) wavering TEXT D During the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, advertising was a relatively straightforward means of announcement and communication and was used mainly to promote novelties and fringe products. But when factory productions got into full swing and new products, e. g. processed foods, came onto the market, national C) skeptical D) unclear . .
www.tingroom.com 在线英语听力室 advertising campaigns and brand-naming of products became necessary. Before large-scale factory production, the typical manufacturing unit had been small and adaptable and the task of distributing and selling goods had largely been undertaken by wholesalers. The small non-specialized factory which did not rely on massive investment in machinery had been flexible enough to adapt its production according to changes in public demands. But the economic depression which lasted from 1873 to 1894 marked a turning point between the old method of industrial organization and distribution a



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