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Part I Reading Comprehension Passage1 In ancient times the most important examinations were spoken, not written. In the schools of ancient Greece and Rome , testing usually consisted of saying poetry aloud or giving speeches. In the European universities of the Middle Ages, students who were working for advanced degrees had to discuss questions in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject. This custom exists today as part of the process of testing candidates for the doctor's degree. Generally, however, modern examinations are written. The written examination, where all students are tested on the same question, was probably not known until the nineteenth century. Perhaps it came into existence with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry. A room full of candidates for a state examination, timed exactly by electric clocks and carefully watched over by managers ,resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory. Generally, during examinations teachers and students are expected to act like machines. One type of test is sometimes called an "objective" test. It is intended to deal with facts, not personal opinions. To make up an objective test the teacher writes a series of questions, each of which has only one correct answer. Along with each question the teacher writes the correct answer and also three statements that look like correct answers to students who have not learned the material properly. [文章大意及重要词汇] 古代(ancient),最重要的考试(examination)是口试而不是笔试。古希腊和古罗马时期,学校的考试由吟诗(poetry) 和演讲两部分组成。 中世纪欧洲的大学里, 那些攻读高学位的学生必须在和他哪个领域里有很大研究成果的学者进行讨论。 这一传统现在保 持下来,用于申请博士学位的学生。 整体上来讲,现在的考试是笔试。所有的学生都做相同的题目的笔试大概到十九世纪才出现。它的出现(came into existence)可能是由于人口(population)的大量增长和现代工业的发展。所有的考生都在一个房间,规定的时间,有监考老 师,就像汽车制 造厂的工人一样。大体上讲,学生就像机器一样。 一种类型的考试叫做“客观性”考试,它主要是关于事实而不是个人看法,要出一份客观性考试的试题,老师写出一系列 的问题,没有问题只有一个正确答案,随时每个问题有四个选项,其中只有一个是正确的,而另外三个对那些没有好好准备 的考生来说具有很大迷惑性。
  1. In the Middle Ages students. A. took objective tests C. were timed by electric clocks B. specialized in one subject D. never wrote exams
答案:D 细节题。答案依据第一段第一句话“In ancient times…(在古代,最重要的考试都是口试,没有笔试)” 。
  2. The main idea of paragraph 3 is that. A. workers now take examination C. there are only written exams B. the population has grown D. examinations are now written and timed
答案:D 主旨题。第三段一开始就谈到“一般来讲, 现在的考试都是笔试;”随后又谈到“所有的考生在一个房间,规 定时间,有监考老师。”所以 D 是正确答案。
  3. The kind of exams where students must select answers are. A. personal B. spoken C. objective D. written 答案:C 细节题。答案在最后一段可找到:“出客观题的时候,老师先出一系列的问题,每个问题后面都附有一个正确 答案,和几个相似的答案。学生被要求找出正确答案。”因此:“学生必须选答案的考试是客观考试。”C 是正确答案。
  4. Modern industry must have developed. A. before the Middle Ages C. in Greece or Rome B. around the 19th century D. machines to take tests
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答 案:B 推理题。答案在文章的第三段可以找到。“The written examination was not known until the nineteenth century. Perhaps it came into existence with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry.”因此,笔试是 19 世纪 才为大家所知,可能是由于人口的增加和现代工业的发展。
  5. It may be concluded that testing. A. should test only opinions C. has changed since the Middle Ages 内容。 passage2 The market investigation is indispensable to sales promotion. They are closely related as the lips and teeth, so to speak. What you produce is for sale on the market. It would be impossible to succeed in selling a product without first investigating the market. In the international market, goods on sale coming from different countries and suppliers are always facing keen competition. Under such circumstances, they will try everything possible to familiarize themselves with the market conditions. In making investigations, we ought to get information about what similar items the competitors are offering on the market, what prices they are quoting (报价), what features their products have, who are their regular customers, etc. Then, how can we obtain such information? There are many channels that we can make use of in doing this sort of work. The commercial counselor's offices of our embassies stationed abroad can help us in making market investigations. Nowadays, our import and export corporations send their trade groups abroad every now and then. One of their purposes is to make market surveys on the spot. Certainly, face-to-face talks with foreign businessmen are also important channels to get market information. The Chinese Export Commodities Fairs and some other fairs of similar nature as well as visits of foreign businessmen provide us with such opportunities. Of course , there are some other ways of making market investigations. [文章大意及重要词汇] 市场调查(market investigation)对扩大销路(sales promotion)是必不可少的(indispensable),可以说(so to speak),他们之间 的关系就像牙齿和嘴唇一样密切。你要生产的物品是在市场上销售的。不首先进行市场调查,产品很难卖出去的。 在国际(international)市场上,来自世界各地的商品很多,商家面临着激烈的竞争(keen competition)。在这样的情况下 (under such circumstances),他们要想尽一切办法来使自己熟悉(familiarize)市场,才能打开销路。在市场调查中我们应 该了解我们的对手生产 类似产品的情况,他们的报价(quoting),他们产品的特征,谁是他们的固定消费者等等,那么,我 们如何获得这些信息呢?有很多渠道 (channels)都可以帮助我们获取信息。在海外设置(stationed)商业咨询办公室,可 以帮助我们获取市场信息。现在有些进出口公司 (corporation)也不定期的想海外派商业访问团,其中的一个目的就是做 现场(on the spot)调查。 当然,面对面的和外商交谈也是一个很重要的获取信息的渠道。中国出口商品展会(fairs)和其他类似的展会和外商的 来访参观,也给我们提供了信息交流的机会(opportunity)。当然,还有其他别的市场调查方法。
  6. In making market investigation , one should. A. get enough information concerned C. produce high quality goods B. advertise his products D. none of the above B. should always be written D. is given only in factories
答案:C 推理题。因为 A,B,D 的内容文章中都没有提到。C 的意思是“自从中世纪开始,考试开始了变化。”符合文章的
答案:A 细节题。答案在文章的第二段可以找到。“在市场调查中我们应该了解我们的对手生产类似产能包括这些内容。
  7. The word "indispensable" in the first line means. A. impossible B. essential C. advisable D. available 答案:B 词汇题。indispensable:必不可少的,必须的。通常和介词 to 连接。又如:Oxygen is indispensable to life.氧气对 生命是不可缺的。所以只有 B 的意思最接近。
  8. Which of the following statements is not true? A. The relationship between market investigation and sales promotion is just as that of the lips and teeth. B. It is impossible to succeed in selling a product without market investigation. C. There are various ways of making market investigation. D. Production goes before market investigation. 答案:D 细节题。D 的意思是“生产先与市场调查”不符合文章的内容。
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  9. Making market investigation is very important because. A. in market, goods on sale are numerous C. it can greatly promote sales
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B. every producer is facing keen competition D. all of the above
答案:D 细节题。根据文章第二段的内容:“在国际市场上,来自世界各地的商品很多,商家面临着激烈的竞争。在这 种情况下,他们要想尽一切办法来使自己熟悉市场,才能打开销路。”所以只有 D 的内容最全面。
  10. All the following are channels to get market information except . A. to have commercial counselor’s office of our embassies stationed abroad B. to promote the quality of our own products C. to send trade groups abroad every now and then D. to have face-to-face talks with foreign businessmen 答案:B 细节题。文章第三段末尾和第四段都谈到了获得市场信息的渠道“驻外使馆里设立商务参赞;经常向国外派贸 易代表团;和外商进行面对面的谈判。”惟独没有提到自己产品的质量。所以 B 是错误的。 Passage3 On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln went to Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to speak at the National Soldiers Cemetery. The Civil War was still going on. There was much criticism of President Lincoln at the time. He was not at all popular. He had been invited to speak at Gettysburg only out of politeness. The principal speaker was to be Edward Everett, a famous statesman and speaker of the day. Everett was a handsome man and very popular everywhere. It is said that Lincoln prepared his speech on the train while going to Gettysburg. Late that night, alone in his hotel room and tired out, he again worked briefly on the speech. The next day Everett spoke first. He spoke for an hour and 57 minutes. His speech was a perfect example of the rich oratory of the day. Then Lincoln rose. The crowd of 15,000 people at first paid little attention to him. He spoke for only nine minutes. At the end there was little applause. Lincoln turned to a friend and remarked , "I have failed again." On the train back to Washington, he said sadly, "That speech was a flat failure, and the people are disappointed." Some newspapers at first criticized the speech. But little by little as people read the speech they began to understand better. They began to appreciate its simplicity and its deep meaning. It was a speech which only Abraham Lincoln could have made. Today, every American school child learns Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by heart. Now everyone thinks of it as one of the greatest speeches ever given in American history. [文章大意及重要词汇] 1863 年报 11 月 9 日林肯到宾夕尼亚州的葛底斯堡(Gettysburg)国家公墓做演说,但是内战仍在进行中, 对林肯总统 的批评(criticism)也很多,他一点都不受大家的欢迎(popular)。而他之所以被邀请去做演说完全是出于礼貌。当时主要 的演讲者 是维莱特,他是当时有名的演说家和政治家,人长的很帅也很受欢迎。 据说,林肯的演讲稿是在去葛底斯堡的火车上写的。那天晚上,他既孤独有疲倦(tired out),只是简单的准备了一下。 第二天第一个眼睛的是维莱特,他说来足足一个小时和 57 分钟,他的演讲技术(oratory)高超是当时完美演讲的典 范。然 后林肯站了起来,当时在场的
  15,000 人根本不把他放在眼里,他只讲了九分钟,最终也很少人给他鼓掌(applause)。林 肯转过身对他的一个 朋友说,“我又失败了”在回华盛顿(Washington)的火车上,他很伤心地说,“这个演讲是一个极大的 失败,听众也很失望。” 起初,许多报纸对他的演讲进行抨击,然后人们才渐渐的开始的更好的理解它,并非常欣赏(appreciate)它的简洁 (simplicity)和蕴涵的深层含义。也只有林肯才能做出这样的演讲来。 如今美国所有的在校学生都能背诵(learn by heart)他的演讲。现在所有的人都认为他的演讲是美国历史上最好的演讲 之一。
  11. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln was. A. very critical B. unpopular C. very popular D. very courteous 答案: 细节题。 B 答



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