2002MBA备考----商务英语重点词汇补充 mailto:geofferylee@sina.com Business and businesses 商业和公司 A business , company, or firm is an organization that sells goods or serv ices. A business may also be referred to formally as a concern. Business i s the production, buying, and selling of goods and services. A business may be referred to approvingly as an enterprise to emphasize i ts adventurous, risk-taking qualities, and business in general may be refe rred to in the same way, for example in combinations such as free enterpri se and private enterprise. Business is also referred to as commerce. This word, and its related adje ctive commercial, are often used to distinguish the business sphere from o ther areas such as government or the arts, or to distinguish it from nonmo ney-making activities. 注释: Business 商业;生意;公司 Company 公司;商号 Firm (合伙的)商号;商行 Concern 康采恩(垄断企业形式之一) Commerce 商业; 商务 Commercial 商业的;商务的;商用的 Enterprise 企事业单位 Free Enterprise 自由企业 Private Enterprise 私人企业 From multinationals to small firms 从跨国公司到小型企业 Large companies are referred to as corporations, especially in the United  States. Corporate is used to describe things relating to a corporation, o r to corporations in general, in expressions like the ones in the next exe rcise. Large companies operating in many countries are multinationals. Big business can refer to large business organizations or to any business  activity that makes a lot of money. Small companies are referred to as sm all businesses or small firms. Unlike some languages, English does not have an everyday term for small a nd medium-sized companies, apart from this rather clumsy expression. 注释: Corporation 大公司;股份有限公司 Corporate 法人;团体 Multinational 跨国的;多国的 page 1
Big business 大型企业;大公司 Small and medium sized companies 中小规模的公司 Small business 小公司 Small firm 小公司 Industries and sectors 工业及其部门 Businesses may be classified according to which industry they are in: for  example construction, oil, banking, food. Sector is sometimes used to mean industry in the same way, particularly b y specialists such as financial journalists, but it is more often used to  talk about different parts of the economy in combinations such as public s ector and private sector, or about types of business in expressions like s ervice sector and manufacturing sector. 注释: Industry 工业;产业 Sector 部门;部分 Public sector 公共部门 Private sector 私营部门 manufacturing sector 制造部门 Service sector 服务部门 Public sector and private 公共部门和私营部门 When a private company is bought by the state and brought into the public  sector, it is nationalized in a process of nationalization. A nationalize d company is state-owned. When the state returns a company to the private  sector in a sell-off, it is privatized. This is privatization. The first to be sold off in a privatization program are often the compani es responsible for the public supply of electricity, water and gas: the ut ilities. 注释: Nationalized 国有化的 Nationalization 国有化 Privatized 私有化的 Privatization 私有化 State-owned 国有的 Sell off 廉价出清 Sell-off 廉价出售;抛售 Utilities 公用事业;公用事业部门 page 2
Stakes 份额;股份 If Company A owns shares or equity in Company B, A has or holds a stake,  holding or shareholding in B. If A owns less than half the shares in B, it  has a minority stake in B. If A owns more than half the shares in B, it has a majority stake or cont rolling stake in B. If you have shares in a company you are a shareholder. 注释: Shares/stake 份额;股份 Equity 股份;产权;普通股票 Holding 持有;股票额 Shareholding 持有股票数 Shareholder 股东 Hold a stake 持有份额 Majority stake 大股东(50%以上) Controlling stake 大股东 Minority stake 小股东 Parents and sisters 母公司和姐妹公司 A holding or holding company is one that holds stakes in one or more subs idiaries. If it owns all the shares in a subsidiary, the subsidiary is a w holly-owned one. A holding company's relationship to its subsidiaries is that of parent co mpany, and the subsidiaries relationship to each other is that of sister c ompanies. A holding and its subsidiaries form a group. A conglomerate is a group containing a lot of different companies in diff erent businesses. Journalists also refer to large groups as giants.  注释: Holding company 控股公司 Subsidiary 子公司 Wholly-owned subsidiary 全资子公司 Parent company 母公司 Sister company 姐妹公司 Group 集团公司 Conglomerate 联合大企业 Giant 大企业;企业巨人(新闻用语) page 3
Predators, raiders, and white knights 掠夺者、抢劫者和善意合作者 The takeover process is often described in terms of one animal hunting an other: a company or individual seeking to take over another company may be  referred to as a predator, and the target company as the prey. Predators  are also referred to as raiders or corpora
 

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