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2004 研究生入学考试考英语真题解析 Section I Listening Comprehension(略) Section II Use of English Directions Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) numbered
Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories (
  21) on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior (
  22) they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through (
  23) with others. Theories focusing on the role of society that children commit crimes in (
  24) to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status (
  25) as a rejection of middle-class values. Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, (
  26) the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes (
  27) lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are (
  28) to criticism. Changes in the social structure may indirectly (
  29) juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that (
  30) to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment (
  31) make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in (
  32) lead more youths into criminal behavior. Families have also (
  33) changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; (
  34) , children are likely to have less supervision at home (
  35) was common in the traditional family (
  36) . This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other (
  37) causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased (
  38) of drugs and alcohol, and the growing (
  39) of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, (
  40) a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.
  21.[A] acting [B] relying [C] centering [D] cementing
  22.[A] before [B] unless [C] until [D] because
  23. [B] [C] [D] [A] interactions assimilation cooperation consultation

  24. [A] return
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[B] reply [C] reference [D] response
  25. [B] [C] [D] [A] or but rather but or else

  26.[A] considering [B] ignoring [C] highlighting [D] discarding
  27. [B] [C] [D]
  28. [B] [C] [D]
  29. [B] [C] [D]
  30. [B] [C] [D]
  31. [B] [C] [D]
  32. [B] [C] [D]
  33. [B] [C] [D]
  34. [B] [C] [D] [A] on in for with [A] immune resistant sensitive subject [A] affect reduce chock reflect [A] point lead come amount [A] on by at in general average contrast length
[A] case short turn essence [A] survived noticed undertaken experienced [A] contrarily consequently similarly simultaneously
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  35. [B] [C] [D]
  36. [B] [C] [D]
  37. [B] [C] [D]
  38. [B] [C] [D]
  39. [B] [C] [D]
  40. [B] [C] [D]
[A] than that which as [A] system structure concept heritage [A] assessable identifiable negligible incredible [A] expense restriction allocation availability [A] incidence awareness exposure popularity [A] provided since although supposing

  21. [答案] [C] [解析] 本题涉及动词短语知识。C. centering on 意为“以…为中心重点” ,符合句意,且与 上文呼应,为正确答案。A. acting on 意为“按照…行事” ;B. relying on 意为“依靠” ; D. commenting on 意为“对…进行评论” 。
  22. [答案] [D] [解析] 本题涉及上下句的句义理解。答案为 D. because,引导由 or 连接着的两个原因状语从 句。
  23. [答案] [A] [ 解析] 本 题考查考生的词 汇知识 。A. interaction( 互 动) 符合 句义 ,应为正确答案。B. assimilation(同化,吸收);C. cooperation(合作);D. consultation(咨询)。
  24. [答案] [D] [解析] 本题涉及词语搭配知识。跟空格前后介词 into 可以搭配,且符合句意的选项为 D。该 短语意为“答复,反应,回应” 。
  25. [答案] [A] [解析] 本题考查考生对上下句句义的理解。空格后 as 引导的为原因状语,与 in response to 引导的原因状语并列,都是“孩子们犯罪”的原因,故答案为 A。
  26. [答案] [B] [解析] 本题涉及词汇知识。B. ignoring 意为“忽视,不顾”带入后,上下句语义连贯,为正 确答案。C. highlighting 意为“强调,突出” ;D. discarding 意为“抛弃” 。
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  27. [答案] [C] ,符合句意,为正确答 [解析] 本题涉及介词短语知识。C. for lack of 意为“由于缺少…” 案。
  28. [答案] [D] [解析] 本题涉及形容词短语知识。D. be subject to 意为“受…支配;遭受…影响” ,符合 。B. be resistant to 意为 句意,为正确答案。A. be immune to 意为“不易受…影响” “对…有抵制力” 。
  29. [答案] [A] [解析] 本题涉及一般的词汇知识。A. affect 意为“影响” ,符合句意,为正确答案。
  30. [答案] [B] [解析] 本题涉及动词短语知识。 B. lead to 意为 “导致” 符合句义, , 为正确答案。 A. point ;D. amount to 意为“总数达到…” 。 to 意为“指向”
  31. [答案] [A] ,为正确答案。B. on [解析] 本题涉及介词短语知识。A. in general 意为“一般来说” average 意为“平均而言” ;C. by contrast 意为“相反” ;D. at length 意为“终于;详尽 地” 。
  32. [答案] [C] ,为正确答案。A. in [解析] 本题同样涉及介词短语知识。C. in turn 意为“依次,接着” case 意为“以防,万一” ;B. in short 意为“总而言之” ;D. in essence 意为“本质上” 。
  33. [答案] [D] [解析] 本题涉及词汇知识。D. experienced(经历)符合句义,为正确答案。C. undertaken 意 为“承担,答应” 。
  34. [答案] [B] [解析] 本题考查一般词汇知识。B. consequently(因此)符合句义,为正确答案。A. contrarily 意为“相反” ;D. simultaneously(同时)。
  35. [答案] [A] [解析] 本题涉及比较状语从句的知识。原句认为,现代家庭中的家长对孩子的管教比传统家 庭中的管教要少, 故此, A. than 为正确答案。 该从句常用省略形式, 空格后省略了 that which。
  36. [答案] [B] [解析] 本题涉及上下文的准确理解。由于上文讲述现代家庭组成的变化,那么对应的当然是 传统家庭的组成结构,故答案为 B. structure。A. system 意为“制度” ,与上下文不太对应。
  37. [答案] [B] [解析] 本题涉及词汇知识。B. identifiable 意为“可以识别的” ,为正确答案。A. assessable 意为“可以评估的” ;C. negligible 意为“可以忽略的” ;D. incredible 意为“难以置信的” 。
  38. [答案] [D] [解析] 本题涉及词汇知识。D. availability 意为“可以提供,可以找到” ,符合句义,为答案。 B. “限定” ;C. “分配” 。
  39. [答案] [A] [解析] 本题涉及词汇知识。A. incidence 意为“发生率” ,符合句意,为正确答案。
  40. [答案] [C] [解析] 本题涉及上下句逻辑的把握能力。C. although 代人后,语义连贯,应为正确答案。 Section III Reading Comprehension Part A Directions Read the by choosing A, B, points) following four texts. Answer the questions below each text C or D. Mark your mowers on ANSWER SNEET
  1. (40
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Text
1
Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s “personal search agent”. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. “I struck gold,’ says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company. With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you “Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility.” says one expert. For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept ?? what you think you want to do ?? then broaden it. “None of these programs do that,” says another expert. “There’s no career counseling implicit in all of this.” Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. “I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me,” says the author of a job-searching guide. Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite’s agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs ?? those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them ?? and they do. “On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp increase in our traffic,” says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for CareerSite. Even those who aren’t hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder. “You always keep your eyes open,” he says. Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you.

  41. How did Redmon find his job [A] [B] [C] [D]
  42. [A] [B] [C] [D] By By By By searching openings in a job database. posting a matching position in a database. using a special service of a database. E-mailing his resume to a database. search agents
Which of the following can be a disadvantage of Lack of counseling. Limited number of visits. Lower efficiency. Fewer successful matches.
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  43. The expression “tip [A] [B] [C] [D]
  44. [A] [B] [C] [D]
  45. [A] [B] [C] [D] advisory. compensation. interaction. reminder.
service” (Line 4, Paragraph
  3) most probably means
Why does CareerSite’s To To To To
agent offer
each job hunter only three job options
focus on better job matches. attract more returning visits. reserve space for more messages. increase the rate of success.
Which of the following is true according to the text Personal search agents are Some sites keep E-mailing Personal search agents are Some agents stop sending indispensable to job-hunters. job seekers to trace their demands. also helpful to those already employed. information to people once they are employed.
分析: 这是一篇议论文,主要讨论网站推出的一种叫“个人搜索工具”的功能项目对求职者的帮助作 用。 第一段以雷德曼为例,引入文章话题“个人搜索工具” 。 第二段指出这种工具的弊病。 第三段讨论这种工具的真正价值。 第四段指出这种工具设计者的隐藏着的意图。 第五段指出该工具对其他人的价值。 参考译文: 甘特.雷德曼律师去年底找工作的时候,在网上碰到了一家叫“职业开创者”的网站。(
  41)他没 能在该网站上搜索到什么,但却被其中的“个人搜索工具”所吸引。这是一种互动性的功能, 访客只需键入自己的求职要求,诸如地点、职务和薪水,然后给网上贴出的对应岗位发个邮件。 雷德曼键入了法律、知识产权和华盛顿哥伦比亚特区几个关键词。三周后,他收到了第一个岗 位通知。雷德曼感叹自己“挖到了金子” ,他将自己的简历邮发给老板,就得到了公司的内部顾 问的职务。 网上有成千上万个与谋职有关的网站,找到好的岗位低效耗时。搜索工具使人们不必反复访问 某些网址,但尽管这种搜索工具对雷德曼有用,求职专家们却发现了其弊病。譬如说,把个人 的求职要求具体明确,反而会对自己不利。有专家说“每当你回答一个问题,你就排除了一种 可能” 。 (
  42) 找工作,首先得有一个明确的概念―――你觉得自己想干什么―――然后拓宽观念。 “而 没有一个程序能做到这一点” ,专家认为, “这些程序缺少的是职业咨询” 。相反,(
  43)最佳策略 应是,把这种搜索工具看作为“提示服务” ,借它了解网站中的岗位职业机会;一旦受到邮件, 将其看作是一个提醒,以便查阅网站。一位求职搜索指南的作者就说过, “我可不想全靠这些搜
 

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