2005 年硕士研究生考试英语真题及答案
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Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numb ered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points) The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are often thoug ht to be insensitive smellers compared with animals, 1 thi s is largely because, 2 animals ,we stand upright. This mea ns that our noses are 3 to perceiving those smells which f the majority of smells which stick loat through the air, 4 to surfaces. In fact 5 , we are extremely sensitive to smells, 6 we do not g human smel enerally realize it. Our noses are capable of 7 ls even when these are 8 to far below one part in one mill ion. Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, 9 others are sensitive to the smel ls of both flowers. This may be because some people do not hav e the genes necessary to generate 10 smell receptors in t he nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send 11 to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell 12 can suddenly bec ome sensitive to it when 13 to it often enough. The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it to keep all smell receptors working all the time but ca 14 n 15 new receptors if necessary. This may 16 explain w hy we are not usually sensitive to our own smells we simply do not need to be. We are not 17 of the usual smell of our o wn house but we 18 new smells when we visit someone else' s. The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors 19 for unfamiliar and emergency signals 20 the smell of smoke, wh ich might indicate the danger of fire.
  1.
  2.
  3.
  4.
  5.
  6. [A]although [A]above [A]limited [A]catching [A]anyway [A]even if [B]as [C]but [D]while [B]unlike [C]excluding [D]besides [B]committed [C]dedicated [D]confined [B]ignoring [C]missing [D]tracking [B]though [C]instead [D]therefore [B]if only [C]only if [D]as if

  7. [A]distinguishing[B]discovering [C]determining[D]detecti ng
  8. [A]diluted [B]dissolved [C]determining[D]diffused [B]since [C]for [D]whereas
  9. [A]when
  10. [A]unusual [B]particular [C]unique [D]typical
  11. [A]signs [B]stimuli [C]messages [D]impulses
  12. [A]at first [B]at all [C]at large [D]at times
  13. [A]subjected [B]left [C]drawn [D]exposed
  14. [A]ineffective [B]incompetent [C]inefficient[D]insuffici ent
  15. [A]introduce [B]summon [C]trigger [D]create
  16. [A]still [B]also [C]otherwise [D]nevertheless
  17. [A]sure [B]sick [C]aware [D]tired [D]notice
  18. [A]tolerate [B]repel [C]neglect
  19. [A]availabe [B]reliable[C]identifiable[D]suitable
  20. [A]similar to[B]such as [C]along with [D]aside from Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text b y choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(4 0 points) Text 1 Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish i f you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if h e has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such beh aviour is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of E mory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well. The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin mo nkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, a nd they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human co unterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goo ds and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect ca ndidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de waal's; study. The researchers sp ent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Nor mally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in sepa rate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other
was getting in return for its rock, their became markedly different. In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much prefe rable to cucumbers) So when one monkey was handed a grape in exch ange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having t o provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to ;accept t he slice of cucumber Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the othe r chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to reduce resentment in a female capuchin. The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guid ed by social emotions, in the wild, they are a co-operative, groupliving species, Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each anim al feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it se ems, are not the preserve of people alone, Refusing a lesser reward co mpletely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of th e group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independe ntly in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems form the common a ncestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unans wered question.
  21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by A. posing a contrast.B. justifying an assumption. C. making a comparison.D. explaining a phenomenon.
  22. The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, paragraph l) impli es that A. monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals. B. resenting unfairness is also monkeys' nature. C. monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other. D. no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions.
  23.Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probab ly because they are A. more inclined to weigh what they get.B. attentive to researchers' ins tructions. C. nice in both appearance and temperament.D. more generous than the ir male companions
  24.Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study t hat the monkeys A. prefer grapes to cucumbers.B. can be taught to exchange things. C. will not be co-operative if feeling cheated.D. are unhappy when sep arated from others.
  25. What can we infer from the last paragraph? A. Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions. B. Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source. C. Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
D. Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild. Text 2 Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoki ng would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn't know for sure? That the evi dence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lo bby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should sta y out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over t hree decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves. There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after an other try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The l atest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely wa rming and that the problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel's report “Science never has all the answers But science do es provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is criti cal that out nation and the world base important policies on the best j udgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions.” Just as on smoking voices now come from many quarters insisting th at the science about global warming is incomplete, that it's Ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. this is a dangerou s game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now. Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obv ious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global w arming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press fo r more research-a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”. To serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forwar d on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research But research alone is in adequate. If the Administration won't take the legislative initiative, Con gress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for priva te industry is a promising start Many see that the country is getting re ady to build lots of new power plants to meet our energy needs. If w e are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound.
  26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that
A. there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death. B. the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insi gnificant. C. people had the freedom to choose their own way of life. D. antismoking people were usually talking nonsense.
  27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as A. a protector. B. a judge.C. a critic.D. a guide.
  28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, paragraph
  4) A. Endless studies kill action.B. Careful investigation reveals truth. C. prudent planning hinders.D. Extensive research helps decision-makin g.
  29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about A. Offer aid to build cleaner power plants.B. Raise public awareness o f conservation. C. Press for further scientific research.D. Take some legislative measur es.
  30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of sm oking because A. they both suffered from the government's negligence. B. a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former. C. the outcome of the latter aggravates the former. D. both of them have turned from bad to worse. Text 3 Of all the components of a good night's sleep, dreams seem to be le ast within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago, Freud form ulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and rears, by the late 1970s. neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise” the random b yproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now res earchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind's emotional thermosta t, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line” And one leading autho rity says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only h arnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better, “It's your dream” says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of p sychology at Chicago's Medical Center. “If you don't like it , change i t.” Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as acti ve during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep-when most vivid dreams o ccur-as it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric Nofzinger at the Universi
ty of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved, th e limbic system (the “emotional brain”)is especially active, while the p refrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quie t. “We wake up from dreams happy of depressed, and those feelings c an stay with us all day” says Stanford sleep researcher Dr, William D ement. And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright beli eves one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. Visua lize how you would like it to end instead, the next time is occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. With much practice peo ple can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep. At the end of the day, there's probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping of “we wake u in a panic,” Cartwright says Terrorism, economic uncertainties and ge neral feelings of insecurity have increased people's anxiety. Those suffe ring from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist For t he rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. Sleep-or rather dream-on it and you'll feel better in the morning.
  31. Researchers have come to believe that dreams A. can be modified in their courses.B. are susceptible to emotional cha nges. C. reflect our innermost desires and fears.D. are a random outcome of neural repairs.
  32. By referring to the limbic system, the author inten
 

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