清华大学考研辅导强化班课程 《英语阅读理解》 英语阅读理解》
清华大学外语学院 吴霞 主讲
Part I 英语阅读考试简介
  1.《大纲》要求
  2.形式 5 篇文章,各 500 字左右,后附 4 小题, 共 20 小题,40 分 Part II 文章体裁
  1.结论说明型 Passage 1 Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Galileo's 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century. Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics-but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked "anti-science" in several books, notably higher superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of Virginia, and Norman Leavitt, a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The demon-Haunted world, by Carl Sagan of Cornell University. Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meeting such as "The Flight from Science and Reason," held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis) information," which assembled last June near buffalo. Anti-science clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Leavitt find fault primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned science's objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research. Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, whose manifesto, published in 1995, scorns science and longs for return to a pre-technological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are anti-science, as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest. The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues Paul Erich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental
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studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth. Indeed, some observers fear that the anti-science epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless. "The term 'anti-science ' can lump together too many, quite different things," notes Harvard University philosopher Gorals Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science. " They have in common only one thing that tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened."
  2.新老观点型 Passage 2 Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children but if you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood; children were to be seen and not heard. Freud and company did away with all that and parents have been bewildered ever since. The child's happiness is all-important, the psychologists say, but what about the parents' happiness? Parents suffer constantly from fear and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apart. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern child-rearing manual would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed even to shout. Who knows what deep psychological wounds you might inflict. The poor child may never recover from the dreadful traumatic experience. So it is that parents bend over backwards to avoid giving their children complex which a hundred years ago hadn't even been heard of. Certainly a child needs love, and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm than good. Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents' confidence in their own authority. And it hasn't taken children long to get wind of the fact. In addition to the great modern classics on childcare, there are countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much unsolicited advice flying about, mum and dad just don't know what to do any more. In the end, they do nothing at all. So, from early childhood, the kids are in charge and parents' lives are regulated according to the needs of their offspring. When the little dears develop into teenagers, they take complete control. Lax authority over the years makes adolescent rebellion against parents all the more violent. If the young people are going to have a party, for instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun. What else can the poor parents do but obey? Children are hardy creatures (far hardier that the psychologists would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness which is the normal condition in the modern household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our own age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that little Johnny can look after himself, is not at home when he returns from school, so little Johnny roams the streets. The dividing- line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed. The psychologists have much to answer for. They should keep their mouths shut and let parent get on with the job. And if children are knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too much. At least this will help them to develop vigorous views of their own and give them something positive to react against.
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Perhaps there's some truth in the idea that children who've had a surfeit of happiness in their child-hood emerge like stodgy puddings and fail to make a success of life.
  3.问题解答型 Passage 3 We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours' sleep alternating with some 16-17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified. The question is no mere academic one. The ease, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed even week; a person may work from 12 midnight 8 a.m. one week, 8 a. m. to 4 p.m. the next, and 4 p.m. to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently. The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a number of permanent night workers. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown in 19
  57. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep and other disorders among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these phenomena among those on permanent night work…. This latter system then appears to be the best long-term policy, but meanwhile something may be done to relieve the strains of alternate day night work by selecting those people who can adapt most quickly to the changes of routine. One way of knowing when a person has adapted is by measuring his body temperature. people engaged in normal daytime work will have a high temperature during the hours of wakefulness and a low one at night; when they change to night work the pattern will only gradually go back to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels, broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in terms of wakefulness it can be seen how quickly a person can a reversed routine, and this could be used as a reversed routine, and this could be used as a basis for selection. So far, however, such a form of selection does not seem to have been applied in practice.
  4.现象解释型 Passage 4 Blood vessels running all through the lungs carry blood to each air sac, or alveolus, and then back again to the heart. Only the thin wall of the air sac and the thin wall of a capillary are between the air and the blood. So oxygen easily diffuses from the air sacs through the walls into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood through the walls into the air sacs.
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When blood is sent to the lungs by the heart, it has come back from the cells in the rest of the body. So the blood that goes into the wall of an air sac contains much dissolved carbon dioxide but very little oxygen. At the same time, the air that goes into the air sac contains much oxygen but very little carbon dioxide. You have learned that dissolved materials always diffuse from where there are more of them to where there is less. Oxygen from the air dissolves in the moisture on the lining of the air sac and diffuses through the lining into the blood. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air sac. The blood then flows from the lunge back to the heart, which sends it out to all other parts of the body. Soon after air goes into an air sac, it gives up some of its oxygen and takes in some carbon dioxide from the blood. To keep diffusion going as it should, this carbon dioxide must be gotten rid of. Breathing, Which is caused by movements of the chest, forces the used air out of the air sacs in your lungs and brings in fresh air. The breathing muscles are controlled automatically so that you breathe at the proper rate to keep your air sacs supplied with fresh air. Ordinarily, you breathe about twenty-two times a minute. Of course, you breathe faster when you are exercising and slower when you are resting. Fresh air is brought into your lungs when you are exercising and slower when you are resting. Fresh air is brought into your lungs when you breathe in, or inhale, while used air is forced out of your lungs when you breathe out, or exhale. Some people think that all the oxygen is taken out of the air in the lungs and that what we breathe out is pure carbon dioxide. But these ideas are not correct. Air is a mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen. This gas is not used in the body. So the amount of nitrogen does not change as air is breathed in and out. But while air is in the lungs, it is changed in three ways;(
  1) about one- fifth of the oxygen in the air goes into the blood. (
  2) An almost equal amount of carbon dioxide comes out of the blood into the air. (
  3) Moisture from the linings of the air passages and air sacs evaporates until the air is almost saturated. Part III 影响阅读的因素
  1.词汇 利用上下文猜测词义
  1)Definition a. All other birthdays are called sing il. The sixty-first birthday is called huan gup. b. The harbor is protected by a jetty--a wall built out into the water. c. Jane is indecisive, that is, she can't make up her mind.
  2)Restatement a. He had a wan look. He was so pale and weak that we thought he was ill. b. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a noxious gas which can cause death. c. I am a resolute man. Once I set up a goal, I won't give it up easily.
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knowledge
  3)General knowledge a. The door was so low that I hit my head on the lintel. b. Mark got on the motorbike, I sat behind him on the pillion, and we roared off into the night. c. We have found that no one in the freshman class can add, multiply, subtract or divide simple sums. Therefore, we are setting up a special remedial arithmetic course, …"
  4)Related information a. "She went to school for 12 years and she can't write a sentence? " Timken said. "They made an illiterate out of my daughter!" b. Timken was now angry…. Once again he flew into a rage. c. Just before the exam Carl's hands shook and sweated so much that he could not hold a pen. His heart beat fast and his stomach ached, even though he knew the subject very well. He really had a strange phobia about taking tests.
  5)Examples a. Select any of these periodicals: Time Magazine, Newsweek, Reader's Digest or The New Yorker. (From the examples, you can easily figure out the meaning of the word " Periodicals".) b. She is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye. (This sentence does not tell you exactly what "glaucoma" means, but it does tell you that "glaucoma" is a kind of eye disease.) c. They had been putting in place the tools of my new business: currycomb, brush, pitch pork--everything…. (from the clue "my new business" as well as the word part "-comb" you might figure out that "currycomb" most probably means "a tool used to comb a horse".)
  6)Comparison a. The snow was falling. Big flakes drifted with the wind like feathers. b. The hot-air balloon took off. It was as buoyant in the air as a cork in water.
  7)Contrast a. Jane was talking with others while Eliza remained reticent all the time b. Most of us agreed; however, Bill dissented. c. Peter was not frugal since he spent money so freely. 利用构词法猜测词义 Prefixes Meaning Example over- "to an excessive degree" overload under- "not enough, not sufficiently" underest
 

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