In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.
Text A The University in Transformation, edited by Australian futurists Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley, pr esents some 20 highly varied outlooks on tomorrow's universities by writers representing both Western an d non-Western perspectives.Their essays raise a broad range of issues,questioning nearly every key assum ption we have about higher education today. The most widely discussed alternative to the traditional campus is the Internet University?a voluntary co mmunity to scholars/teachers physically scattered throughout a country or around the world but all linked in cyberspace.A computerized university could have many advantages,such as easy scheduling,efficient de livery of lectures to thousands or even millions of students at once,and ready access for students everywh ere to the resources of all the world's great libraries. Yet the Internet University poses dangers,too.For example,a line of franchised courseware,produced by a f ew superstar teachers,marketed under the brand name of a famous institution,and heavily advertised,might eventually come to dominate the global education market,warns sociology professor Peter Manicas of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.Besides enforcing a rigidly standardized curriculum,such a"college educatio n in a box"could undersell the offerings of many traditional brick and mortar institutions,effectively drivin g them out of business and throwing thousands of career academics out of work,note Australian communi cations professors David Rooney and Greg Hearn. On the other hand,while global connectivity seems highly likely to play some significant role in future hi gher education,that does not mean greater uniformity in course content?or other dangers?will necessarily follow.Counter-movements are also at work. Many in academia,including scholars contributing to this volume,are questioning the fundamental mission of university education.What if,for instance,instead of receiving primarily technical training and building th eir individual careers,university students and professors could focus their learning and research efforts on existing problems in their local communities and the world? Feminist scholar Ivana Milojevic dares to dr eam what a university might become"if we believed that childcare workers and teachers in early childh ood education should be one of the highest (rather than lowest) paid professionals?" Co-editor Jennifer Gidley shows how tomorrows university faculty,instead of giving lectures and conduc ting independent research,may take on three new roles.Some would act as brokers,assembling customized degree-credit programmes for individual students by mixing and matching the best course offerings availa ble from institutions all around the world.A second group,mentors,would function much like today's facult y advisers,but are likely to be working with many more students outside their own academic specialty.Thi s would require them to constantly be learning from their students as well as instructing them.
A third new role for faculty,and in Gidley's view the most challenging and rewarding of all,would be as meaning-makers: charismatic sages and practitioners leading groups of students/colleagues in collaborative efforts to find spiritual as well as rational and technological solutions to specific real-world problems. Moreover,there seems little reason to suppose that any one form of university must necessarily drive out all other options.Students may be"enrolled"in courses offered at virtual campuses on the Internet,between ?or even during?sessions at a realworld problemfocused institution. As co-editor Sohail Inayatullah points out in his introduction,no future is inevitable,and the very act of i magining and thinking through alternative possibilities can directly affect how thoughtfully,creatively and urgently even a dominant technology is adapted and applied.Even in academia,the future belongs to those who care enough to work their visions into practical,sustainable realities.
  11. When the book reviewer discusses the Internet University, [A] he is in favour of it. [B] his view is balanced.
[C] he is slightly critical of it.[D] he is strongly critical of it.
  12. Which of the following is NOT seen as a potential danger of the Internet University? [A] Internetbased courses may be less costly than traditional ones. [B] Teachers in traditional institutions may lose their jobs. [C] Internetbased courseware may lack variety in course content. [D] The Internet University may produce teachers with a lot of publicity.
  13. According to the review,what is the fundamental mission of traditional university education? [A] Knowledge learning and career building. [B] Learning how to solve existing social problems. [C] Researching into solutions to current world problems. [D] Combining research efforts of teachers and students in learning.
  14. Judging from the three new roles envisioned for tomorrows university faculty,university teachers [A] are required to conduct more independent research. [B] are required to offer more courses to their students. [C] are supposed to assume more demanding duties. [D] are supposed to supervise more students in their specialty.
  15. Which category of writing does the review belong to? [A] Narration. [B] Description.[C] Persuasion. [D] Exposition.

Text B
Every street had a story, every building a memory. Those blessed with wonderful childhoods can drive t he streets of their hometowns and happily roll back the years. The rest are pulled home by duty and lea ve as soon as possible. After Ray Atlee had been in Clanton (his hometown) for fifteen minutes he was anxious to get out.
The town had changed,but then it hadn't.On the highways leading in,the cheap metal buildings and mobil e homes were gathering as tightly as possible next to the roads for maximum visibility.This town had no zoning whatsoever.A landowner could build anything with no permit,no inspection,no notice to adjoining landowners,nothing.Only hog farms and nuclear reactors required approvals and paperwork.The result was a slash-and-build clutter that got uglier by the year. But in the older sections,nearer the square,the town had not changed at all.The long shaded streets were as clean and neat as when Ray roamed them on his bike.Most of the houses were still owned by people he knew,or if those folks had passed on the new owners kept the lawns clipped and the shutters painte d.Only a few were being neglected.A handful had been abandoned. This deep in Bible country,it was still an unwritten rule in the town that little was done on Sundays exc ept go to church,sit on porches,visit neighbours,rest and relax the way God intended. It was cloudy,quite cool for May,and as he toured his old turf,killing time until the appointed hour for t he family meeting,he tried to dwell on the good memories from Clanton.There was Dizzy Dean Park wh ere he had played Little League for the Pirates,and there was the public pool he'd swum in every summ er except 1969 when the city closed it rather than admit black children.There were the churches?Baptist, Methodist,and Presbyterian?facing each other at the intersection of Second and Elm like wary sentries,th eir steeples competing for height.They were empty now,but in an hour or so the more faithful would gat her for evening services. The square was as lifeless as the streets leading to it.With eight thousand people,Clanton was just large enough to have attracted the discount stores that had wiped out so many small towns.But here the people had been faithful to their downtown merchants,and there wasn't a single empty or boarded-up building a round the square?no small miracle.The retail shops were mixed in with the banks and law offices and c afes, all closed for the Sabbath. He inched through the cemetery and surveyed the Atlee section in the old part, where the tombstones we re grander.Some of his ancestors had built monuments for their dead.Ray had always assumed that the fa mily money he'd never seen must have been buried in those graves.He parked and walked to his mothe r's grave,something he hadn't done in years.She was buried among the Atlees,at the far edge of the fami ly plot because she had barely belonged. Soon,in less than an hour,he would be sitting in his father's study,sipping bad instant tea and receiving i nstructions on exactly how his father would be laid to rest.Many orders were about to be given,many de crees and directions,because his father (who used to be a judge) was a great man and cared deeply abou t how he was to be remembered. Moving again, Ray passed the water tower he'd climbed twice,the second time with the police waiting b elow.He grimaced at his old high school,a place he'd never visited since he'd left it.Behind it was the fo otball field where his brother Forrest had romped over opponents and almost became famous before getti ng bounced off the team. It was twenty minutes before five, Sunday, May
  7. Time for the family meeting.

  16. From the first paragraph, we get the impression that [A] Ray cherished his childhood memories. [B] Ray had something urgent to take care of. [C] Ray may not have a happy childhood. [D] Ray cannot remember his childhood days.

  17. Which of the following adjectives does NOT describe Ray's hometown? [A] Lifeless. [B] Religious. [C] Traditional. [D] Quiet.

  18. From the passage we can infer that the relationship between Ray and his parents was [A] close. [B] remote. [C] tense. [D] impossible to tell.

  19. It can be inferred from the passage that Ray's father was all EXCEPT [A] considerate. [B] punctual. [C] thrifty. [D] dominant.

Text C
Campaigning on the Indian frontier is an experience by itself.Neither the landscape nor the people find th eir counterparts in any other portion of the globe.Valley walls rise steeply five or six thousand feet on e very side.The columns crawl through a maze of giant corridors down which fierce snow-fed torrents foa m under skies of brass.Amid these scenes of savage brilliancy there dwells a race whose qualities seem t o harmonize with their environment.Except at harvesttime,when self-preservation requires a temporary tr uce,the Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war.Every man is a warrior,a politician and a theologian.Every large house is a real feudal fortress made,it is true,only of sun-baked clay,but with b attlements,turrets,loopholes,drawbridges,etc.complete.Every village has its defence.Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan,its feud.The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to s ettle with one another.Nothing is ever forgotten,and very few debts are left unpaid.For the purposes of so cial life,in addition to the convention about harvest-time, a most elaborate code of honour has been estab lished and is on the whole faithfully observed.A man who knew it and observed it faultlessly might pass unarmed from one end of the frontier to another.The slightest technical slip would,however,be fatal.The l ife of the Pathan is thus full of interest; and his valleys,nourished alike by endless sunshine and abundan
t water,are fertile enough to yield with little labour the modest material requirements of a sparse populati on. Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts:the rifle and the British Government. The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second,an unmitigated nuisance.The convenience of th e rifle was nowhere more appreciated than in the Indian highlands.A weapon which would kill with accu racy at fifteen hundred yards opened a whole new vista of delights to every family or clan which could acquire it.One could actually remain in one's own house and fire at one's neighbour nearly a mile away. One could lie in wait on some high crag,and at hitherto unheard of ranges hit a horseman far below.Eve n villages could fire at each other without the trouble of going far from home.Fabulous prices were there fore offered for these glorious products of science.Rifle-thieves scoured all India to reinforce the efforts o f the honest smuggler.A steady flow of the coveted weapons spread its genial influence throughout the fr ontier,and the respect which the Pathan tribesmen entertained for Christian civilization was vastly enhance d. The action of the British Government on the other hand was entirely unsatisfactory.The great organizing,a dvancing,absorbing power to the southward seemed to be little better than a monstrous spoil-sport.If the Pathan made forays into the plains,not only were they driven back (which after all was no more than fai r),but a whole series of subsequent interferences took place,followed at intervals by expeditions which toil ed laboriously through the valleys,scolding the tribesmen and exacting fines for any damage which they h ad done.No one would have minded these expeditions if they had simply come,had a fight and then gon e away again.In many cases this was their practice under what was called the "butcher and bolt policy" to which the Government of India long adhered.But towards the end of the nineteenth century these intru ders began to make roads through many of the valleys,and in particular the great road to Chitral.They so ught to en



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