2008 年 6 月大学英语四级试题及参 听力: 一.写作部分(9:00-9:
  30) Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Apology according to the outline given below. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese.
  1.娱乐活动多种多样
  2.娱乐活动可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性
  3.作为大学生,我的看法. 二.快速阅读(9:30-9:
  45) Media Selection for Advertisements After determining the target audience for a product or service, advertising agencies must select the appropriate media for the advertisement. We discuss here the major types of media used in advertising. We focus our attention on seven types of advertising: television, newspapers, radio, magazines, out-of-home. Internet, and direct mail. Television Television is an attractive medium for advertising because it delivers mass audiences to advertisers. When you consider that nearly three out of four Americans have seen the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? you can understand the power of television to communicate with a large audience. When advertisers create a brand, for example, they want to impress consumers with the brand and its image. Television provides an ideal vehicle for this type of communication.But television is an expensive medium, and not all advertisers can afford to use it. Television's influence on advertising is fourfold. First, narrowcasting means that television channels are seen by an increasingly narrow segment of the audience. The Golf Channel, for instance. is watched by people who play golf. Home and Garden Television is seen by those interested in household improvement projects. Thus, audiences are smaller and more homogeneous(具有共同 特点的) than they have been in the past. Second, there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers. This has also resulted in an increase in the sheer number of advertisements to which audiences are exposed. Third, digital recording devices allow audience members more control over which commercials they watch. Fourth, control over programming is being passed from the networks to local cable operators and satellite programmers. Newspaper? After television, the medium attracting the next largest annual ad revenue is newspapers. The New York Times, which reaches a national audience, accounts for $1 billion in ad revenue annually, ii m increased its national circulation (发行量) by 40% and is nowavailable for home delivery in ion ciues. Locally, newspapers are the largest advertising medium. Newspapers are a less expensive advertising medium than television and provide a way for advertisers to communicate a longer. more detailed message to their audience than they can through 48 hours,meaning newspapers are also a quick way of getting the massage out.Newspapers are ofen the most important form of news for a local community, and they develop a high degree of loyalty from local reader.
Radio Advertising on radio continues to grow Radio is often used in conjunction with outdoor bill-boards (广告牌) and ihe Internet to reach even more customers than television. Advertisers are likely to use radio because it is a less expensive medium than television, which means advertisers can afford to repeal their ads often. Internet companies are also turning 10 radio advertising. Radioprovides a way for advertisers to communicate with audience members at all times of the day.Consumers listen to radio on their way to school or work, at work, on the way home, and in the evening hours. Two major changes?satellite and Internet radio?will force radio advertisers to adapt their methods. Both of these radio forms allow listeners to tune in stations that are more distant than the local stations they could receive in the past. As a result, radio will increasingly attract target audiences who live many milesapart. Magazines Newsweeklies, women's titles, and business magazines have all seen increases in advertising because they attract the high-end market, magazines are popular with advertisers because of the narrow market that they deliver. A broadcast medium such as network television attracts all types of audience members, but magazine audiences are more homogeneous, if you read sports illustrated, for example, you have much in common with the magazine's other readers. Advertisers see magazines as an efficient way of reaching target audience members. Advertiser using the print media-magazines and newspapers-will need to adapt to two main changes. First, the internet will bringlarger audiences to local newspapers, these second. Advertisers will have to understand how to use an increasing number of magazines for their target audiences. Although some magazines will maintain national audiences, a large number of magazines will entertain narrower audiences. Out-of-home advertising Out-of-home advertising. Also called place-based advertising, has become an increasingly effective way of reaching consumers, who are more active than ever before. Many consumers today do not sit at home and watch television. Using billboards, newsstands, and bus shelters for advertising is an effective way of reaching these on-the-go consumers. More consumers travel longer distances to and from work, which also makes out-of-home advertising effective, technology has changed the nature of the billboard business, making it a more effective medium than in the past. Using digital printing, billboard companies can print a billboard in 2 hours, compared with 6 days previously. This allows advertisers more variety in the types of messages they create because they. Can change their messages more quickly. Internet As consumers become more comfortable with online shopping, advertisers will seek to reach this market As consumers get more of their news and information from the Internet, the ability of television and radio to get the word out to consumers will decrease.The challenge to Internet advertisers Is to create ads that audience members remember. Internet advertising will play a more prominent role in organizations' advertising in the near ftuture. Internet audiences tend to be quite homogeneous, but small. Advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach these audiences and will have to adapt their persuasive strategies to the online medium as well.
Direct mail A final advertising medium is direct mail, which uses mailings to consumers to communicate a client's message Direct mail includes newsletters. postcards and special promotions. Direct mail is an effective way to build relationships with consumers.For manybusinesses.direct mail is the most effective from of advertising.
  1. Television is an attractive advertising medium in that. A) it has large audiences B) it appeals to housewives C) it helps build up a company's reputation D) it is affordable to most advertiser
  2. With the increase in the number of TV channels. A) the cost of TV advertising has decreased B) the nuiflber of TV viewers has increased C) advertisers' interest in other media has decreased D) the number of TV ads people can see has increased
  3.Compared with television, newspapers as an advertising medium. A) earn a larger annual ad revenue B) convey more detailed messages C) use more production techniques D) get messages out more effectively
  4.Advertising on radio continues to grow because . A) more local radio stations have been set up B) modern technology makes it more entertaining C) it provides easy access to consumers D) it has been revolutionized by Internet radio.
  5.Magazines are seen by advertisers as an efficient way to. A) reach target audiences B) modern technology makes it more entertaining C) appeal to educated people. D) convey all kinds of messages
  6.Oui-of-home advertising has become more effective because A) billboards can be replaced within two hours B) consumers travel more now ever before C) such ads have been made much more attractive D) the pace of urban life is much faster nowadays
  7. The challenge to Internet advertisers is to create ads that are. A) quick to update B) pleasant to look at C) easy to remember D) convenient to access
  8. Internet advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach audiences that tend to be
  9.Direct mail is an effecitive form of advertising for businesses to develop
  10.This passage discusses how advertisers selectfor advertisements.
注意:收答题卡一作文和快速阅读部分(9:45-10:
  00) 三.听力部分(10:00-10:
  35) Section C 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答. We're now witnessing the emergence of an advanced economy based on information and knowledge. Physical(
  36), raw materials, and capital are no longer the key(
  37) in the creation of wealth. Now, the(
  38) raw material in our economy is knowledge. Tomorrow's wealth depends on the development and exchange of knowledge. And(
  39) entering the workforce offer their knowledge, not their muscles. Knowledge workers get paid for their education and their ability to learn. Knowledge workers(
  40) in mind work. They deal with symbols: words,(
  41) and data. What does all this mean for you? As a future knowledge worker, you can expect to be(
  42) , processing, as well as exchanginginformation. (
  43) , three out of four jobs involve some form of mind work, and that number will increase sharply in the future. Management and employees alike(
  44) . In the new world of work, you can look forward to being in constant training (
  45) . You can also expect to be taking greatercontrol of your career. Gone are the nine-five jobs. lifetime security, predictable promotions, and even the conventional workplace, as you are familiar with. (
  46) , and don't wait for someone to "empower" you. You have to empower yourself. 四.阅读词汇部分选词阅读及完型 (10:35-11:
  25) 选词填空 Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes) Section A Question 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Some years ago I was offered a writing assignment that would require three months of travel through Europe. I had been abroad a couple of times, but I could hardly -47- to know my way around the continent. Moreover, my knowledge of foreign languages was -48- to a little college French. I hesitated. How would I, unable to speak the language, -49- unfamiliar with local geography or transportation systems, set up-50- and do research? It seemed impossible, and with considerable-51-I sat down to write a letter begging off. Halfway through, a thought ran through my mind: you can't learn if you don't try. So I accepted the assignment. There were some bad-52-. But by the time I had finished the trip I was an experienced traveler. And ever since. I have never hesitated to head for even the most remote of places. Without guides or even-53- bookings. Confident that somehow I will manage. The point is that the new, the different, is almost by definition ?54- . but each time you try something. You learn. And as the learning plies up. The world opens to you. I've learned to ski at 40, and flown up the Rhine river in a ?55-. And I know I'll go to doing such things. It's not because I'mbraver or more daring than others. I'm not. But I'll accept anxiety as another name for challenge and I believe I can-56-wonders. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答. A.accomplish I.manufacture B.advanced J.moments C.balloon K.news
D.claim L.reduced E.constantly M.regret F.declare N.scary G.interviews O.totally H.limited 阅读 Passage One Question 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, butregardless of whether it is or isn't -we won't do much about it. We will argue over it and may even, as a nation, make some fairly solemn-sounding commitments to avoid it. But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed. A1 Gore calls global warming an "inconvenient truth," as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution. But the real truth is that we don't know enough to relieve global warming, and - without major technological breakthroughs - we can't domuch about it. From 2003 to 2050,the world 's population is projevted to grow from
  6.4 billon to
  9.1 billion ,a 42% increase.if energy use perperson and technology remain te same,total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions(mainly,CO
  2)will be 42% higher in 20
  50.But that's too low,because societies that grow richer use more energy.We need econmic growth unless we condemn the world's poor totheir present Poverty and freeze everyone else's living standards.With modest growth,energy use and greenhouse emissions more then double by 20
  50. No government will adopt rigid restrictions on economic growth and personal freeom (limits on electricity usage,driving and travel)that might cut back global warming.Still,politicians want to show they're "doing something"Consider the Kyoto Protoco(京都议定书).It alowed countries that joined to punish those that didn't.But it hasn't reduced CO2 emissions(up about 25% since 19
  90),and many signatories( 签 字 国 ) didn't adopt tough enough policies to hit their 2008-2012 targets. The practical codusion is that if gl
 

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