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新东方:2008 年 12 月四级写作范文
一、Limiting The Use of Disposable Plastic Bag
  1.一次性塑料袋曾被广泛的使用
  2.造成的问题
  3.限制使用的意义 Disposable plastic bags were once widely used in China. When we went shopping at supermarkets and departments stores, shopping assistants often provided free plastic bags for our convenience. For a while, life without them seemed unimaginable for most of us. However, disposable plastic bags do bring severe damage to our environment. Costumers usually threw them away after use, and because they are thin and hard to decompose, these plastic products will exist for a long time. This is an immediate threat to our earth and water. Nowadays, the government has passed relevant regulations for limiting the
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use of disposable plastic bags: they are not free any more. In some shopping places, in order to invoke the public awareness of environmental protection, plastic bags are offered in a much higher price. As a result, people are changing their behavior: paper and clothing bags that vanished for a long time come back to our daily life. It is true that by limiting its usage, everyone in this society contributes some effort to the improvement of the environment. Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet
  1.For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D).For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
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That’s enough, kids It was a lovely day at the park and Stella Bianchi was enjoying the sunshine with her two children when a young boy, aged about four, approached her two-year-old son and pushed him to the ground. “I’d watched him for a little while and my son was the fourth or fifth child he’ d shoved,” she says.” I went over to them, picked up my son, turned to the boy and said, firmly, ’No, we don’t push,” What happened next was unexpected. “The boy’s mother ran toward me from across the park,” Stella says,” I thought she was coming over to apologize, but instead she started shouting at me for disciplining her child, All I did was let him know his behavior was unacceptable. Was I supposed to sit back while her kid did whatever he wanted, hurting other children in the process?” Getting your own children to play nice
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is difficult enough. Dealing with other people’s children has become a minefield. In my house, jumping on the sofa is not allowed. In my sister’s house it’s encouraged. For her, it’s about kids being kids:”If you can’t do it at three, when can you do it?” Each of these philosophies is valid and, it has to be said, my son loves visiting his aunt’s house. But I find myself saying “no” a lot when her kids are over at mine. That’s OK between sisters but becomes dangerous territory when you’ re talking to the children of friends or acquaintances. “Kids aren’t all raised the same,” agrees Professor Naomi White of Monash University.” But there is still an idea that they’re the property of the parent. We see our children as an extension of ourselves, so if you’re saying that my
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child is behaving inappropriately, then that’s somehow a criticism of me.” In those circumstances, it’s difficult to know whether to approach the child directly or the parent first. There are two schools of thought. “I’d go to the child first,” says Andrew Fuller, author of Tricky Kids. Usually a quiet reminder that ’we don’ t do that here’ is enough. Kids nave finely tuned antennae (直觉) for how to behave in different settings.” He points out bringing it up with the parent first may make them feel neglectful, which could cause problems. Of course, approaching the child first can bring its own headaches, too. This is why White recommends that you approach the parents first. Raise your concerns with the parents if they’re there and ask them to deal with it,” she says.
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Asked how to approach a parent in this situation, psychologist Meredith Fuller answers:”Explain your needs as well as stressing the importance of the friendship. Preface your remarks with something like: ’I know you’ll think I’m silly but in my house I don’t want…’ ” When it comes to situations where you’ re caring for another child, white is straightforward: “common sense must prevail. If things don’t go well, then have a chat.” There’re a couple of new grey areas. Physical punishment, once accepted from any adult, is no longer appropriate. “A new set of considerations has come to the fore as part of the debate about how we handle children.” For Andrew Fuller, the child-centric nature of our society has affected everyone:” The rules are different now
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from when today’s parents were growing up,” he says, “Adults are scared of saying: ’ don’ swear’ or asking a child t , to stand up on a bus. They’re worried that there will be conflict if they point these things out ? either from older children, or their parents.” He sees it as a loss of the sense of common public good and public courtesy (礼貌), and says that adults suffer form it as much as child. Meredith Fuller agrees: “A code of conduct is hard to create when you’re living in a world in which everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, and a world in which nice people are perceived to finish last.” “it’s about what I’m doing and what I need,” Andrew Fuller says. ”the days when a kid came home from school and said, “I got into trouble”. And dad said, ‘you probably deserved it’. Are over.
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Now the parents are charging up to the school to have a go at teachers.” This jumping to our children’s defense is part of what fuels the “walking on eggshells” feeling that surrounds our dealings with other people’s children. You know that if you remonstrate(劝诫) with the child, you’re going to have to deal with the parent. it’s admirable to be protective of our kids, but is it good? “Children have to learn to negotiate the world on their own, within reasonable boundaries,” White says. “I suspect that it’s only certain sectors of the population doing the running to the school ?better ?educated parents are probably more likely to be too involved.” White believes our notions of a more child-centred, it’s a way of talking about treating our children like
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commodities(商品). We’re centred on them but in ways that reflect positively on us. We treat them as objects whose appearance and achievements are something we can be proud of, rather than serve the best interests of the children.” One way over-worked, under-resourced parents show commitment to their children is to leap to their defence. Back at the park, Bianchi’s intervention(干预) on her son’s behalf ended in an undignified exchange of insulting words with the other boy’s mother. As Bianchi approached the park bench where she’d been sitting, other mums came up to her and congratulated her on taking a stand. “Apparently the boy had a longstanding reputation for bad behaviour and his mum for even worse behaviour if he was challenged.”
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Andrew Fuller doesn’t believe that we should be afraid of dealing with other people’s kids. “look at kids that aren’ t your own as a potential minefield,” he says. He recommends that we don’ stay t silent over inappropriate behaviour, particularly with regular visitors. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。
  1. What did Stella Bianchi expect the young boy’s mother to do when she talked to him? A) make an apology B) come over to intervene C) discipline her own boy D) take her own boy away
  2. What does the author say about dealing with other people’s children? A) it’s important not to hurt them in any way B) it ’s no use trying to stop their wrongdoing C) it’s advisable to treat them as one’
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s own kids D) it’s possible for one to get into lots of trouble
  3. According to professor Naomi white of Monash university, when one’s kids are criticized, their parents will probably feel A) discouraged B) hurt C) puzzled D) overwhelmed
  4. What should one do when seeing other people’s kids misbehave according to Andrew fuller? A) talk to them directly in a mild way B) complain to their parents politely C) simply leave them alone D) punish them lightly
  5. Due to the child-centric nature of our society, A) parents are worried when their kids swear at them
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B) people think it improper to criticize kids in public C) people are reluctant to point our kids’ wrongdoings D) many conflicts arise between parents and their kids
  6. In a world where everyone is exhausted from over work and lack of sleep, . A) it ’ s easy for people to become impatient B) it’s difficult to create a code of conduct C) it ’ s important to be friendly to everybody D) it’s hard for people to admire each other
  7. How did people use to respond when their kids got into trouble at school? A) they’d question the teachers B) they’d charge up to the school C) they’d tell the kids to clam down D) They’d put the blame on their kids
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  8. Professor white believes that the notions of a more child-centred society should be challenged.
  9. According to professor white, today’ s parents treat their children as something they can be proud of.
  10. Andrew fuller suggests that , when kids behave inappropriately, people should not stay silent. 2008-12-20 四级快速阅读 A 卷标准答案 (北京新东方版)
  1.A make an apology. 对 应 原 文 第 7 行 I thought she was coming over to apologise
  2.D It’s possible for one to get into lots trouble 对应原文第 10 行 Dealing with other people’s children has become a minefield,其中 minefield 指的是雷区,表 明比较难于处理的问题
  3.B hurt 对应原文第一页倒数第 10 行 then
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that’s somehow a criticism of me
  4.A Talk to them directly in a mild way. 对 应原文第一页倒数第 6 行 usually a quiet reminder that “we don’t do that here” is enough.
  5.C people are reluctant to point out kid’ s wrongdoings. 此题难度较大,需要阅读 中跳跃的范围较大,要直接跳到原文第二页 的 第 10 行 For Andrew Fuller, the child-centric nature of our society has affected everyone, “ The rules are different now from when today’s parents were growing up.
  6.B It ’ s difficult to create a code of conduct. 对应原文第二页第 16 行
  7.D They’d put the blame on their kids 对 应原文第二页 20 行 “I got into trouble” , and dad said, “ You probably deserved
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it.”
  08. challenged
  09. can be proud of
  10. stay silent Question 47 to 56 are based on the following passage. A bookless life is an incomplete life. Books influence the depth and breadth of life. They meet the natural__47for freedom, for expression, for creativity and beauty of life. Learners, therefore, must have books, and the right type of book, for the satisfaction of their need. Readers turn__48to books because their curiosity concerning all manners of things, their eagerness to share in the experiences of others and their need to49from their own limited environment lead them to find in books food for the mind and the spirit. Through their reading they find a deeper
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significance to life as books acquaint them with life in the world as it was and it is now. they are presented with a50of human experiences and come to__51other ways of thought and living. And while__52their own relationships and responses to life, the readers often find that the__53in their stories are going through similar adjustments, which help to clarify and give significance to their own. Books provide54material for readers ’ imagination to grow imagination is a valuable quality and a motivating power, and stimulates achievement. While enriching their imagination, books__55their outlook, develop a fact finding attitude and train them to use leisure__56__, the social and educational significance of the readers ’ s books cannot be overestimated in an academic library.
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A) abundant I) establishing B) characters J) narrow C) communicating K) naturally D) completely L) personnel E) derive M) prop
 

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