2008 年 12 月大学英语四级真题试题
Part I Writing 作文题目: 作文题目:Limiting The Use of Disposable Plastic Bags
  1. 一次性塑料袋曾被广泛的使用
  2. 造成的问题
  3. 限制使用的意义 Part II Reading comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet
  1. For question 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
That's enough, kids
It was a lovely day at the park and Stella Bianchi was enjoying the sunshine with her two children when a young boy, aged about four, approached her two-year-old son and pushed him to the ground. "I'd watched him for a little while and my son was the fourth or fifth child he'd shoved." she says,"I went over to them, picked up my son, turned to the boy and said, firmly,' No, we don't push.'" What happened next was unexpected. "The boy's mother ran toward me from across the park." Stella says. " I thought she was coming over to apologise, but instead she started shouting at me for 'disciplining her child'. All I did was let him know his behaviour was unacceptable. Was I supposed to sit back while her kid did whatever he wanted, hurting other children in the process?" Getting your own children to play nice is difficult enough. Dealing with other people's children has become a minefield In my house, jumping on the sofa is not allowed. In my sister's house it's encouraged. For her, it's about kids being kids:"If you can't do it at three, when can you do it?" Each of these philosophies is valid and, it has to be said, my son loves visiting his aunt's house. But I find myself saying "no" a lot when her kids are over at mine. That's OK between sisters but becomes dangerous territory when you're talking to the children of friends or acquaintances. "Kids aren't all raised the same." agrees Professor Naomi White of Monash University. "But there's still an idea that they're the property of the parents. We see our children as an extension of ourselves, so if you're saying that my child is behaving inappropriately, then that's somehow a criticism of me." In those circumstances, it's difficult to know whether to approach the child directly or the parent first. There are two schools of thought. "I'd go to the first." says Andrew Fuller, author of Tricky Kids,"Usually a quiet reminder that ' we don't do that here' is enough. Kids have finely tuned antennae(直觉)for how to behave in different settings." He points out that bringing it up with the parent first may make them feel neglectful, which could cause problems. Of course, approaching the child first can bring its own headaches,too. This is why White recommends that you approach the parents first. "Raise your concerns with the parents if they're there and ask them to deal with it." she says. **** how to approach a parent in this situation. Psychologist Meredith Fuller answers:"Explain your needs as well as stressing the importance of the friendship. Preface your remarks with something like: ' I know you'll think I'm silly but in my house I don't want...'" When it comes to situations where you're earing for another child. White is straightforward:"Common sense muse prevail. If things don't go well then have a chat." There're a couple of new grey areas. Physical punishment, once accepted from any adult, is no longer appropriate. "Now you can't do it without feeling uneasy about it." White says. Men might also feel uneasy about dealing with other people's children. "Men feel nervous," White says. "A new set of considerations has come to the fore as part of the debate about how we handle children." For Andrew Fuller, the child-centrid nature of our society has affected everyone. "The rules are different now from when today's parents were growing up," he says. "Adults are scared of saying, ' Don't swear ', or asking a child to stand up on a bus. They're worried that there will be conflict if they point these things out-either from older children, or their parents." He sees it as a loss of the sense of common public good and public courtesy(礼貌), and says that adults suffer from
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it as much as children. Meredith Fuller agrees,"A code of conduct is hard to create when you're living in a world in which everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, and a world in which nice people are perceived to finish last." "It's about what I'm doing an what I need," Andrew Fuller says."The days when a kid came home from school and said, ' I got into trouble ', and dad said, ' You probably deserved it', are over. Now the parents are charging up to the school to have a go at teachers." This jumping to our children's defence is part of what fuels the "walking on eggshells" feeling that surrounds our dealings with other people's children. You know that if you remonstrate (劝诫) with the child, you're going to have to deal with the parents. It's admirable to be protective of our kids, but is it good? "Children have to learn to negotiate the world on their own, within reasonable boundaries," White says. "I suspect that it's only certain sectors of the population doing the running to the school-better0educated parents are probably more likely to be too involved." White believes our notions of a more child-centred society should be challenged. "Today we have a situation where, in many families, both parents work, so the amount of time children get from parents has diminished," she says. "Also, sometimes when we talk about being child-centred, it's a way of talking about treating our children like
commodities(商品). We ' re centred on them but in ways that reflect positively on us. We treat them as objects whose
appearance and achievements are something we can be proud or , rather than serve the best interests of the children." One way over-worked, under-resourced parents show commitment to their children is to leap to their defence. Back at the park, Bianchi's intervention (干预)on her son;s behalf ended in an undignified exchange of insulting words with the other boy's mother. As Bianchi approached the park bench where she ' d been sitting, other mums came up to her and congratulated her on taking a stand. "Apparently the boy had a longstanding reputation for had behaviour and his mum for even worse behaviour if he was challenged." Andrew Fuller doesn't believe that we should be afraid of dealing with other people's kids. "Look at kids that aren't your own as a potential minefield." he says. He recommends that we don't stay silent over inappropriate behaviour, particularly with regular visitors. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答.
  1. What did Stella Bianchi expect the young boy's mother to do when she talked to him? A) Make an apology. C) Discipline her own boy. B) Come over to intervene. D) Take her own boy away.
  2. What does the author say about dealing with other people's children? A) It's important not to hurt them in any way. C) It's advisable to treat them as one's own kids. feel . A) discouraged C) puzzled B) hurt D) overwhelmed
  4. What should one do when seeing other people's kids misbehave according to Andrew Fuller? A) Talk to them directly in a mild way. B) Complain to their parents politely. C) Simply leave them alone. D) Punish them lightly. B) people think it improper to criticise kids in public D) many conflicts arise between parents and their kids B) It's no use trying to stop their wrongdoing. D) It's possible for one to get into lots of trouble.

  3. According to Professor Naomi White of Monash University, when one's kids are criticised, their parents will probably

  5. Due to the child-centric nature of our society, . A) parents are worried when their kids swear at them C) people are reluctant to point out kid's wrongdoings A) it's easy for people to become impatient C) it's important to be friendly to everybody A) They'd question the teachers. B) They'd charge up to the school.

  6. In a word where everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, . B) it's difficult to create a code of conduct D) it's hard for people to admire each other

  7. How did people use to respond when their kids got into trouble at school? C) They'd tell the kids to calm down. D) They'd put the blame on their kids.

  8. Professor White believes that the notions of a more child-centred society should be .
  9. According to Professor White, today's parents treat their children as something they .
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  10. Andrew Fuller suggests that, when kids behave inappropriately, people should not . Part III Listening Comprehension Direction: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversation. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was ... Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答.
  11. A) Only true friendship can last long. C) She keeps in regular touch with her classmates.
  12. A) A painter. C) A porter. B) A mechanic.
  13. A) Look for a place near her office. B) Find a new job down the street. C) He has gained some weight lately.
  15. A) The woman possesses a natural talent for art. C) He isn't good at abstract thinking. B) Letter writing is going out of style. D) She has lost contact with most of her old friends. D) A carpenter.
C) Make inquiries elsewhere. D) Rent the $600 apartment. B) He has been extremely busy recently. D) He enjoyed going shopping with Jane yesterday. B) Women have a better artistic taste than men. D) He doesn't like abstract paintings.

  14. A) He prefers to wear jeans with a larger waist.

  16. A) She couldn't have left her notebook in the library. B) She may have put her notebook amid the journals. C) She should have made careful notes while doing reading. D) She shouldn't have read his notes without his knowing it.
  17. A) She wants to get some sleep. B) She needs time to write a paper.
  18. A) He is confident he will get the job. C) It isn't easy to find a qualified sales manager.
  19. A) He can manage his time more flexibly. C) He can concentrate on his own projects.
  20. A) Reading its ads in the newspapers. C) Contacting its manager.
  21. A) To cut down its production expenses. C) To improve its administrative efficiency.
  22. A) Buy a tractor. B) Fix a house. C) She has a literature class to attend. D) She is troubled by her sleep problem. B) His chance of getting the job is slim. D) The interview didn't go as well as he expected.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard. B) He can renew contact with his old friends. D) He can learn to do administrative work. B) Calling its personnel department. D) Searching its website. B) To solve the problem of staff shortage. D) To utilize its retired employees' resources. D) Sign a business contract.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. C) See a piece of property.
  23. A) It is only forty miles from where they live. C) It was bought at a price lower than expected.
  24. A) Growing potatoes will involve less labor. C) It may not be big enough for raising corn.
  25. A) Finances. Section B Directions: In this section, you'll hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passages, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意: 上作答. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答. Passage One Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  26. A) To introduce the chief of the city's police force. C) To address the issue of community security. B) To comment on a talk by a distinguished guest. D) To explain the functions of the city council.
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B) It is a small one with a two-bedroom house. D) It has a large garden with fresh vegetables. B) Its soil may not be very suitable for corn. D) Raising potatoes will be more profitable. B) Labor. D) Profits.
C) Equipment.

  27. A) He has distinguished himself in city management. C) He completed his higher education abroad.
  28. A) To coordinate work among police departments. C) To help the residents in times of emergency.
  29. A) Popular. Passage Two C) Effective.
B) He is head of the International Police Force. D) He holds a master's degree in criminology. B) To get police officers closer to the local people. D) To enable the police to take prompt action. D) Controversial.
B) Discouraging.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  30. A) People differ greatly in their ability to communicate. C) Most public languages are inherently vague.
  31. A) It is a sign of human intelligence. C) It is something we are born with.
  32. A) How private languages are developed. C) How people create their languages. Passage Three Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  33.
 

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