高考英语词法复习题 第1章
一.概念: 概念:
主谓一致是指:
  1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致.
  2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致.
  3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语, 一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数.例如: There is much water in the thermos. 但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式.例如: Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
主谓一致
二.相关知识点精讲

  1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数
  1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,例如: 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数 Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要. 注意:当主语由 and 连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时, 谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词.例如: The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们 的生活有重要意义. 典型例题 The League secretary and monitor asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is B. was C. are D. were 答案 B. 注: 先从时态上考虑.这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除 A.,C. 本题易误选 D,因为 The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有 the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词.后面的职 务用 and 相连.这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选 B.
  2. 主谓一致中的靠近原则
  1)当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致.例如: There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔,一把小 刀和几本书. There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班 上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩.
  2)当 either… or… 与 neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保 持一致.如果句子是由 here, there 引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的 主语一致.例如: Either you or she is to go. 不是你去,就是她去. Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔,信封和纸.
  3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致
  3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致
1
当主语有 with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词 组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致.例如: The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一 些学生在参观工厂. He as well as I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船.
  4. 谓语需用单数的情况 谓语需用单数的情况
  1)代词 each 以及由 every, some, no, any 等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含 有 each, every 时, 谓语需用单数.例如: Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机. There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了.
  2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数.例如: The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英 语爱好者熟悉的一本书.
  3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整 体,谓语一般用单数.例如: Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期 来做准备. Ten yuan is enough. 十元够了.
  5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数
  5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数
  1)代词 what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all 等词的单复数由其指 代的词的单复数决定.例如: All is right. 一切顺利. All are present. 人都到齐了.
  2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定.如 family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee 等词后,谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的 各个成员,用单数时强调该集体的整体.例如: His family isn't very large. 他家成员不多. His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者. 但集合名词 people, police, cattle, poultry 等在任何情况下都用复数形式.例 如: Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗?
  3)有些名词,如 variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单 数,有时看作复数.例如: A number of +名词复数+复数动词. The number of +名词复数+单数动词. A number of books have lent out. The majority of the students like English.
  6.与后接名词或代词保持一致的情况
  6.与后接名词或代词保持一致的情况
  1)用 half of, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of 等引起主语时,谓
2
语动词通常与 of 后面的名词/代词保持一致.例如: Most of his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱花在书上了. Most of the students are taking an active part in sports. 大部分学生积极 参与体育运动.
  2)用 a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of 等引起主语时,谓语动词通 常用单数.例如: A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事 故. A pile of lots was set beside the hearth. 炉边有一堆木柴.
  3)如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的短语作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式.但由 more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致.例如: Many a person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书. More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生 来自这个城市.
三.巩固练习
( )
  1. The number of people invited fifty, but a number of them absent for different reasons. B. was, was D. were, were were A. were, was C. was, (
)
  2. E-mail, as well as telephones, an important part in daily A. is playing C. are playing B. have played D. play covered with trees and
communication.
(
)
  3. of the land in that district grass. A. Two fifth, is C. Two fifths, is
B. Two fifth, are D. Two fifths, are B. seems D. are seemed a driving license. B. have D. are having' next-door neighbours. C. were C. has been C. was
3
(
)
  4. Ten minutes a long time for one who waits. A. seem C. seemed
(
)
  5. Eric is the only one of the boys who A. has C. is having
( ( (
)
  6. Joy and Sorrow A. is A. are )
  8. When A. is
B. are B. is B. are
D. be unbelievable. D. have been D. were
)
  7. In my opinion, some of the news
the United Nations founded?
(
)
  9. Every possible means A. has tried C. was tried
. B. has been tried D. were tried nothing to do with me. C. has C. have been It's a pity. B. except Tom and Jack have D. but I have B. is admitted D. is admitting D. have D. is
( ( (
)
  10. What she says and does A. was )
  11. There A. are )
  12. Nobody A. but Tom and Jack have C. but my friends has B. were B. must seen the film.
a dictionary and several books on the desk.
(
)
  13. No teacher and no student . A. are admitted C. are admitting
( (
)
  14. All but one here just now. A. is A. is not decided C. has not decided B. was C. has been B. are not decided D. have not decided D. were )
  15. When and where to build the new factory yet.
)
  16. The writer and singer here. A. is B. are C. were D. do ( )
  17. As I have a meeting at four, ten minutes all that I can spare to talk with you. A. are B. was C. is D. were ( )
  18. In those days John with his classmates kept busy preparing for the exam. A. is B. are C. was D. were ( )
  19. ?? your clothes? ??No, mine hanging over there. A. Is it, is B. Are these, are C. Is it, are D. Are these, is ( )
  20. The Smith's family, which rather a large one, very fond of their old houses. A. were, were B. was, was C. were, was D. was, were ( )
  21. What the teacher and the students want to say that either of the countries beautiful. A. are, are B. is, is
4
(
C. are, is D. is, are ( )
  22. He is the only one of the students who a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been ( )
  23. of my brothers are reporters. Covering events, meetings, or sports meetings their duty. A. Each, are B. Both, is C. Neither, are D. None, is ( )
  24. ?? What do you think of the of the coat? ?? It's rather high. You can buy a cheaper one in that shop. A. value B. cost C. price D. use ( )
  25. ?? Are the two answers correct? ?? No, correct. A. no one is B. both are not C. neither is D. either is not ( )
  26. The wind, together with rain and fog, making sailing difficult. A. have been B. was C. / D/ are
四.答案
  1.C

  2. A
  3. C
  4. B
  5. A
  6. B
  11. D
  12. C
  13. B
  14. D
  15. A
  16. A
  17. C B
  22. D
  23. B
  24. C
  25. C
  26. B

  7. B
  18. C

  8. C
  19. B

  9. B
  10. C
  20. D
  21.
第2章
概念: 一. 概念:
动词的时态
时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是 通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有 16 种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一 般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时, 过去完成时,英在完成时和现在完成进行时.
二.相关知识点精讲

  1.一般现在时的用法
  1.一般现在时的用法
  1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用.时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday.例如: I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家.
  2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实.例如: The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动. Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部.
  3) 表示格言或警句.例如: Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败.
5
注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现 在时. 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的.
  4) 现在时刻的状态,能力,性格,个性.例如: I don't want so much. 我不要那么多. Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不 行. 比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子. I am doing my homework now. 我正在做功课. 第一句用一般现在时, 用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作, 表示言行的瞬间动作. 第二句中的 now 是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般 现在时.
  2. 一般过去时的用法
  1) 在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态. 例如: 时间状语有: yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等.例如: Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?
  2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作.例如: When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 我是个孩子的时 候,常在马路上踢足球. Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎.
  3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了".例如: It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了. It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了" ,例如 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了. would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'.例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧.
  4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问,请求,建议等,而一般 过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在.例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些. 比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间. ) Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再 住在肯塔基州. ) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在 肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去) 注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气.
  1)动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等.例如: Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗?
6
I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下.
  2)情态动词 could, would.例如: Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?
  3.一般将来时
  3.一般将来时
  1) shall 用于第一人称,常被 will 所代替.will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求 意见时常用于第二人称.例如: Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢? Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?
  2) be going to +不定式,表示将来. a. 主语的意图,即将做某事.例如:What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天 打算作什么呢? b. 计划,安排要发生的事.例如:The play is going to be produced next month. 这出戏下月开播. c. 有迹象要发生的事.例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了.
  3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事.例如: We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告.
  4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事.例如: He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京. 注意:be about to do 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连 用.
  4. 一般现在时表将来
  1)下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的
 

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