中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
2008 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is 大1家 to say it anyway. He is that 大2家 bird, a scientist who works independently 大3家 any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 大4家 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested. 大5家 he, however, might tremble at the 大6家 of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 大7家 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in 大8家 are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection. This group generally do well in IQ test, 大9家 12-15 points above the 大10家 value of 100, and have contributed 大11家 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 大12家 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 大13家 . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, 大14家 , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been 大15家 to social effects, such as a strong tradition Use of English
中国教育在线考研频道
www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
of 大16家 education. The latter was seen as a (an) 大17家 of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 大18家 . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 大19家 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 大20家 state of affairs.
  1. [A] selected
  2. [A] unique
  3. [A] of [B] prepared [C] obliged [D] pleased [D] rare [D] against [C] previously [D]
[B] particular [C] special [B] with [C] in [B] presently

  4. [A] subsequently lately
  5. [A] Only
  6. [A] thought
  7. [A] advises
  8. [A] progress
  9. [A] attaining
  10. [A] normal [B] So [B] sight [B] suggests [B] fact [B] scoring [B] common
[C] Even [C] cost [C] protests [C] need [C] reaching [C] mean
[D] Hence [D] risk [D] objects [D] question [D] calculating [D] total

  11. [A] unconsciously [C] indefinitely
  12. [A] missions
  13. [A] affirm
  14. [A] moreover
  15. [A] given up
  16. [A] assessing [B] fortunes [B] witness [B] therefore [B] got over
[B] disproportionately [D] unaccountably [C] interests [C] observe [C] however [D] careers [D] approve [D] meanwhile
[C] carried on [D] put down
[B] supervising [C] administering [D] valuing [C] consequence [D] instrument

  17. [A] development [B] origin
中国教育在线考研频道 www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )

  18. [A] linked
  19. [A] limited
[B] integrated [C] woven [B] subjected [C] converted
[D] combined [D] directed [C] inevitable [D]

  20. [A] paradoxical [B] incompatible continuous Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points)
Text 1
While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York’s Veteran’s Administration Hospital. Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males. Adding to a woman’s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress. “It’s not necessarily that women don’t cope as well. It’s just that they have so much more to cope with,” says Dr. Yehuda. “Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men’s,” she observes, “it’s just that they’re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.” Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. “I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic
中国教育在线考研频道
www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.” Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. “I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.” Later, her marriage ended and she became a single mother. “It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.” Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez’s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.
  21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs? [A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress. [B] Women are still suffering much stress caused by men. [C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress. [D] Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.
  22. Dr. Yehuda’s research suggests that women [A] need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress. [B] have limited capacity for tolerating stress. [C] are more capable of avoiding stress. [D] are exposed to more stress.
  23. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be [A] domestic and temporary. [B] irregular and violent. [C] durable and frequent.
中国教育在线考研频道
www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
[D] trivial and random.
  24. The sentence “I lived from paycheck to paycheck.” (Line 6, Para.
  5) shows that [A] Alvarez cared about nothing but making money. [B] Alvarez’s salary barely covered her household expenses. [C] Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs. [D] Alvarez paid practically everything by check.
  25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Strain of Stress: No Way Out? [B] Responses to Stress: Gender Difference [C] Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say [D] Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress
Text 2
It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors’ names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal. No longer. The Internet ? and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it ? is making access to scientific results a reality. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than that. It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.
中国教育在线考研频道
www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion. The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. They publish more than
  1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals. This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report’s authors. There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories. Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.
  26. In the first paragraph, the author discusses [A] the background information of journal editing. [B] the publication routine of laboratory reports. [C] the relations of authors with journal publishers. [D] the traditional process of journal publication.
  27. Which of the following is true of the OECD report? [A] It criticizes government-funded research. [B] It introduces an effective means of publication. [C] It upsets profit-making journal publishers. [D] It benefits scientific research considerably.
  28. According to the text, online publication is significant in that [A] it provides an easier access to scientific results.
中国教育在线考研频道 www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
[B] it brings huge profits to scientific researchers. [C] it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge. [D] it facilitates public investment in scientific research.
  29. With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper is required to [A] cover the cost of its publication. [B] subscribe to the journal publishing it. [C] allow other online journals to use it freely. [D] complete the peer-review before submission.
  30. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the text? [A] The Internet is posing a threat to publishers. [B] A new mode of publication is emerging. [C] Authors welcome the new channel for publication. [D] Publication is rendered easier by online service.
Text 3
In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of
  42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames. The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today’s people ? especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations ? apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they aren’t likely to get any taller. “In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we’ve pretty much gone as far as we can go,” says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the
中国教育在线考研频道 www.kaoyan.cn
中国教育在线( 中国教育在线(www.kaoyan.cn) 中国最权威考研门户 )
increasingly common practice of recruiting players from all over the world. Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients ? notably, protein ? to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children a
 

相关内容

2010年考研英语真题

   普特英语听力网,免费英语学习网 2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I Directions: Use of English Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) In 1924 America's National Research C ...

2006年6月英语四级真题及答案

   河南省教育网英语四六级频道-为您提供最全面英语四六级音频资料和辅导资料的下载! 四六级网址:http://cet.haedu.cn/ 特色:提供历年考试试题,模拟试题,英语四级音频,英语六级音频下载等。资料丰富,更 新快! 2006 年 6 英语四级真题 文字版 B 卷 PartⅠ Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short convers ...

2009年6月英语四级真题及答案

   2009 年 6 月大学英语四级真题试卷 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minute to write a short essay on the topic of students selecting their lectures. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given bellow: 1. 2. 3. 越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什 ...

2004年6月大学英语四级真题及答案

   ★★★★★ 2004 年 6 月大学英语四级真题 B 卷 2004 年 6 月大学英语四级试卷 Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversa tion, a question will be asked about what was said. ...

2001年英语专业四级考试真题及答案

   2001 年英语专业四级考试真题及答案 听力 Part Ⅲ LISTENING COMPREHENSION [20 MIN.] In Sections A, B and C, you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet. ...

2008年考研英语应用文黄金预测范文集锦

   2008 年考研英语应用文黄金预测范文集锦 第一节应用文黄金预测范文 一. 私人信函 范文 1 Directions: One of your best friends, Mary, moved to another city a few days ago. Write a keep in touch letter to her, telling her you missed her, asking how she is going on, and introducing the lates ...

二十年考研英语真题完型知识点统计分析(89-08)

   中华英语学习网www.100yingyu.com 官方总站:www.100xuexi.com 20年完型真题考查知识点统计分析 英语完型填空, 在2002年之后的考研英语真题中被称作英语知识运用, 是一道非常古老 的题型, 自1989年以来, 就一直作为考研英语的必考题型, 与阅读一起历经20年考验与变迁, 而活力依然. 为了从总体上把握考研英语的命题趋势, 明了命题者的意图和考查侧重点, 我们对历年 真题中的完型填空进行了系统分析, 细致分析了1989年至2008年共计20年的完型真题, ...

08.12.20 英语四级真题及答案

   2008 年 12 月四级真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes) Title: Limiting The Use of Disposable Plastic Bag : 1.一次性塑料袋曾被广泛的使用 2.造成的问题 3.限制使用的意义 Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes ...

08.12.20 英语四级真题及答案

   part 1 writing.参考范文:http://www.ebigear.com/news-446-57814.html Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sh ...

08年4月自考英语翻译试题及答案

   全国 2008 年 4 月自学考试英语翻译试题 Ⅰ.Multiple Choice Questions (30 points, 2 points for each) A. Directions: This part consists of ten sentences, each followed by four different versions marked A,B,C and D. Choose the one that is the closest equivalent of the ...

热门内容

初三英语时态定从宾从

   初三英语 一:用所给动词的正确形式填空: 1 , I won't return the book to the library because I (not finish) reading it. to speak to 2,As soon as he saw me, he me. (stop) 3,I hope he 4,It (come) back in a week. (rain) hard when I got to the factory this morning. 5,The o ...

常用英语

   一、一个星期七天 Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 二、一年十二个月 January February March April May June July August September October November December 三、一年四季 1. spring 2. summer 3. autumn 4. winter 四、容易拼写错的数字 1. eighth 第八 2. ninth 第九 3. f ...

呼场中学提高八年级英语口语交际能力的调查问卷

   呼场中学提高八年级英语口语交际能力的调查问卷 1、你喜欢英语吗? A.很喜欢 B. 一般 C. 不喜欢 2 你喜欢在课堂内说英语吗? A.很喜欢 B. 一般 C. 不喜欢 3、对于英语常用口语单词你都能记住吗? A.能够 B. 大部分 C. 很少 4、你能流利地使用日常英语对话吗? A. 能够 B. 基本能 C. 不能 5、当大家在讨论某个话题时,你能用英语完全表达出自己的看法吗? A. 能够 B. 一点点 C. 不能 6、英语课上你能理解老师的每一句话吗? A. 能够 B. 勉强 C. 不 ...

PEP英语五年级上册复习资料

   PEP 英语五年级上册复习资料 英语五年级上册复习资料 姓名?????? 一、四会单词 Unit 1: : Young 年 轻 的 funny 滑 稽 可 笑 的 tall 高 的 strong 强 壮 的 kind 和 蔼 的 亲 切 的 old 年 老 的 short 矮的 thin 瘦的 Mr 先生 like 像、喜欢 strict 严格的 smart 聪明的、巧妙 的 active 积极的、活跃的 quiet 安静的、文静的 very 很、非常 but 但是 Unit 2: : Mo ...

0NJRK往事追忆_来让你的英语显得层次高一点吧

   灿烂的语言,只能点缀感情,如果我沉默,代表我真的喜欢你 26、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 27、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 28、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 29、生活的真正意义是:生下来,活下去。 、生活的真正意义是: 生下来,活下去。 30、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 31、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 3 ...