2009 年高考英语第二轮语法专题复习总汇
一,冠词 The Article 知识要点: 知识要点: 冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义.冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article) 和定冠词(The definite Article)两种.a (an) 是不定冠词,a 用在辅音之前:如 a book, a man; an 用在元音 之前,如:an old man, an hour, an interesting book 等.the 是定冠词. 一,不定冠词的用法 1, 指人或事物的某一种类 (泛指)这是不定冠词 a (an)的基本用法. She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please . 如: pass me an apple. 2,指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物.如:He borrowed a story-book from the library. A Li is looking for you. 一位姓李的同志正在找你. 3,表示数量,有"一"的意思,但数的概念没有 one 强烈.如: I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes. 4,用于某些固定词组中.如: a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time 等. 5,用在抽象名词前,表具体的介绍??a + 抽象名词,起具体化的作用.如: This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣. It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情. It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会,对我来说是一种荣誉. 二,定冠词的用法: 定冠词的用法: 1,特指某(些)人或某(些)事物.这是定冠词 the 的基本用法.如: Beijing is the capital of China. The pen on the desk is mine. 2,指谈话双方都知道的人或事物.如: Where is the teacher? Open the window, please. 3,指上文提过的人或事物(第二次出现) .如: There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms. The baby was thin. 4,用在世界上独一无二的事物前.如: the earth, the moon, the sun. 5,用在序数词和形容词最高级前. (副词最高级前的定冠词可省略)如: He is always the first to come to school. Bob is the tallest in his class. 6,用在某些专有名词前(由普通名词构成的专用名词) .如: the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children's Palace, the Party 等. 7,用在一些习惯用语中.如: on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way 等. 8,用在江河湖海,山脉前.如: the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas 9,用在报刊,杂志前.如: the People's Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报. 10,表示某一家人要加定冠词.如:
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The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人. 11,用在形容词前,表某一类人.如: the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick 等. 12,定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处.如: The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car). 零冠词(即不用冠词) 三,零冠词(即不用冠词) : 1,专用名词和不可数名词前.如: China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science 等. 2,名词前已有作定语用的 this, that, my, your, some, any 等代词.如: Go down this street. 3,复数名词表示一类人或事物时.如: We are students. I like reading stories. 4,节日,日期,月份,季节前.如: Teachers' Day, Children's Day, National Day, in summer, in July 等. Today is New Year's Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women's Day. 5,在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前,尤其作表语,宾补时.如: What's the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor. 6,在某些习惯用语中的名词前.如: at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil 等. 7,在三餐饭和球类运动前.如: She goes to school after breakfast every morning. We are going to play football. We usually have lunch at school. 8,科目前不加.如: We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. 专项训练】 【专项训练】 : air. 1, We can't live without A.an B.× C.the D.some 2,??Have you seen pen? I left it here this morning. ??Is it black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A.a; the B.the; the C.the; a D.a; a 3,I've been waiting for him for hour and half. A.×; × B.the; a C.a; the D.an; a 4,What fine weather we have today! A.a B.× C.some D.an 5,Have you ever seen as tall as this one? A.a tree B.such tree C.an tree D.tree school at age of six. 6,Children usually go to A.×; the B.a; an C.the; × D.the; the Himalayas is highest mountain in world. 7, A.×; the;× B.The; the; the C.A; a; a D.×;×;×
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8,They each have __book. Li Hua's is about writer. Wang Lin's is on science. A.a; a; × B.the; ×; the C.×; the; × D.a; the; a 9, Physics is science of matter and energy. A.The; × B.×; × C.×; the D.A; a sun rises in east and sets in west. 10, A.A; an; a B.The;×;× C.The; the; the D.A; the; a 11,Many people agree that__knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. A.a;× B.the; an C.the; the D.×; the 12, __Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He was in bad temper. A.×;a B.A;× C.The; the D.A; a dinner then. It was delicous one. 13,They were at A.a; the B.×;× C.×;a D.a; a 14,what kind of car do you want to buy? A.× B.the C.a D.an music. 15,Alice is fond of playing piano while Henry is interested in listening to A.×; the B.×;× C.the; × D.the; the 16,Beyond stars, the astronaut saw nothing but space. A.the; × B.×; the C.×;× D.the; the telephone in 18
  76. 17,Alexander Graham Bell invented A.× B.a C.the D.one 18,??Where's Jack? ??I think he's still in bed, but he might just be in bathroom. A.×;× B.the; the C.the; × D.×; the 19,Many people are still in habit of writing silly things in public places. A.the; the B.×;× C.the; × D.×; the 20,??I'd like information about the management of your hotel, please. ??Well, you could have word with the manager. He might be helpful. A.some; a B.an; some C.some; some D.an; a 答案】 【答案】 : 1,B air 是不可数名词. 2, 此题为 97 年高考题. D 根据句意, 第一空是泛指, 第一次出现; 第二空仍是泛指, 且表数量 "-" . 3,D 元音前用 an. 4,B weather 是不可数名词. 5,A 此题为 85 年高考题.泛指. 6,A go to school 是固定短语. 7,B 山脉,形容词最高级及世界上的唯一的名词前加定冠词. 8,A 第一,二空泛指,第三空,science 是不可数名词. 9,C 第一空,科目前不加冠词;第二空特指,有定语. 10,C 11,A 第一空,a + 不可数名词表具体的介绍;第二空,trade 不可数. 12,D 第一空是指有一位琼斯先生在您不在的时候来访. (括号里说明,我们俩都不认识这个人,因 此不是特指. )第二空是固定短语,情绪不好. 13,C 第一空 at dinner 正在吃饭,固定短语. 14,A 泛指 15,C 此题是 89 年高考题:乐器前加定冠词;music 是不可数名词. 16,A 此题是 90 年高考题:stars 前应加定冠词;space 不可数.
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17,C 18,D 19,C 20,A
此题是 91 年高考题:发明应是特指. 此题是 92 年高考题.in bed 是固定短语,不加冠词. 此题是 93 年高考题.第一空后有定语,固是特指.第二空, public places,公共场所,泛指. 此题是 95 年高考题.information 是不可数名词;have a word with sb.是固定短语. 二,名词 Nouns
知识要点: 知识要点: 名词的种类: 一,名词的种类: 1,专有名词:
  1)China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack(不加冠词)
  2)the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People's Republic of China, the United States 等. (由普通名词构 成的专有名词,要加定冠词. ) 2,普通名词:
  1)不可数名词
物质名词: water , rice , oil , paper … 抽象名词: health , trouble , work , pleasure , honor …
注意: 注意: 不可数名词前一般不加冠词,尤不加不定冠词:若加 a(an)则使之具体化了. 如:have a wonderful time. 不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式. 不可数名词一般无复数形式.部分物质名词在表不同类别时,可用复数形 式. 如:fishes, newspapers, waters, snows…… | | | | 各种各样的鱼 各种报纸 河湖,海水 积雪 有些抽象名词也常用复数,变为可数的具体的事物.如:times 时代,works 著作,difficulties 困难 在表数量时,常用"of"词组来表示.如: a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper….
  2)可数名词: 可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外,一般都要加冠词:A birdcaufly. The frog is a kind of hibernating animal. Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh. 有复数形式: a)规则变化??加"s"或"es" (与初中同,略) b)不规则变化??child (children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men), woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen), phenomenon(phenomena)… 注意:c)单,复数同形:sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, fish(同一种鱼)…….如, 注意 a sheep, two sheep d)只用复数形式: thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,… e)形复实单:physics, politics, maths, news, plastics(塑料) ,means. f)形单实复:people (人民,人们) ,the police, cattle 等 g)集合名词如:family, public, group, class 等.当作为整体时,为单数;当作 为整体中的各个成员时,为复数.如: My family is a big one. My family are music lovers. h)复合名词变复数时,a)只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式.如: sister(s)-in-law 嫂子,弟妹;step-son (s)继子;editor (s) -in-chief 总编辑.
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b)如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加"s" .如:grown-up(s)成年人,go-between(s) 中间人 c)woman, man 作定语时,要与被修饰的名词的数一致.如:a man servant?men servants, a woman doctor?women doctors 名词的所有格: 二,名词的所有格: 1,表有生命的东西(人或动物)的名词所有格,一般在名词后加"'s" .如:Mike's bag, Children's Day, my brother's room, women's rights… 注意: .如:Teachers' Day, the workers' 注意:
  1)名词复数的词尾是-s 或-es,它的所有格只在词后加"s" rest-home(工人疗养院) ,the students' reading-room
  2)复合名词的所有格,在后面的词后加"'s" .如:her son-in-law's photo(她女婿的照片) ; anybody else's book(其他任何人的书)
  3)如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有,则在最后的一个名词后面加"'s" ; 如果不是共有,则每个词后都要加"'s" .如:Jane and Helen's room. 珍妮和海伦的房间(共有). Bill's and Tom's radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的 收音机(不共有)
  4)表地点(店铺,某人的家等)的名词所有格后面,一般省去它所修饰的名词.如: the tailor's (裁缝铺) the doctor's (诊所) Mr Brown's (布朗先生的家)
  5)有些表时间,距离,国家,城镇的无生命的名词,也可加"'s"表所有格. 如:half an hour's walk (半小时的路程) China's agriculture (中国的农业) 2,表示无生命的东西的名词一般与 of 构成词组,表示所有格.如:the cover of the book 3,表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用 of,特别是名词较长,有较多的定语时.如: the story of Dr Norman Bethune Do you know the name of the boy standing at the gate? 4, "of 词组+所有格"的用法: 在表示所属物的名词前有冠词, 数词, 不定代词或指示代词 (如: two, some, a few, this, that, these, those a, 等)时,常用"of 词组+所有格"的形式来表示所有关系.如: a friend of my father's 我父亲的一位朋友. some inventions of Edison's 爱迪生的一些发明 those exercise-books of the students' 学生们的那些练习本. 专项训练】 【专项训练】 : in the hospital. 1,There are only twelve A.woman doctors B.women doctors C.women doctor D.woman doctor 2,Mr Smith has two , both of whom are teachers in a school. A.brothers-in-law B.brother-in-laws C.brothers-in-laws D.brothers-in law 3,??How many does a cow have? ??Four. A.stomaches B.stomach C.stomachs D.stomachies 4,Some visited our school last Wednesday. A.German B.Germen C.Germans D.Germens 5,The of the building are covered with lots of . A.roofs; leaves B.rooves; leafs C.roof; leaf D.roofs; leafs missing. 6,When the farmer returned home he found three A.sheeps B.sheepes C.sheep D.sheepies 7,That was a fifty engine.
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A.horse power B.horses power C.horse powers D.horses powers 8,My father often gives me . A.many advice B.much advice C.a lot of advices D.a few advice while she was washing up. 9,Mary broke a A.tea cup B.a cup of tea C.tea's cup D.cup tea 10,Can you give us some about the writer? A.informations B.information C.piece of informations D.pieces information 11,I had a cup of and two pieces of this morning. A.teas; bread B.teas; breads C.tea; breads D.tea; bread 12,As is known to us all, travels much faster than . A.lights; sounds B.light; sound C.sound; light D.sounds; lights 13,She told him of all her and . A.hope; fear B.hopes; fear C.hopes; fears D.hope; fears did a lot of to the crops. 14,The rising A.water; harm B.water; harms C.waters; harm D.waters; harms 15,??How far away is it from here to your school? ??It's about . A.half an hour's drive B.half hours drives C.half an hour drives D.half an hour drive . 16,The shirt isn't mine. It's A.Mrs Smith B.Mrs' Smith C.Mrs Smiths' D.Mrs Smith's 17,Miss Johnson is a friend of . A.Mary's mother B.Mary's mothers' C.Mary mother's D.Mary's mother's 18,Last week I
 

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