1994 年试题与分析 年试题与分析 与分
Section ⅠUse of English
The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is 1 the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of 2 breakdown is in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words __3 a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may 4 unfavorable reactions in the listener 5 interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down. 6__, inaccurate or indefinite words may make 7 difficult for the listener to understand the 8 which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be 9 to explain or describe in a 10 that can be understood by his listeners.
  1. [A] of [B] at [C] for [D] on
  2. [A] inaccessible [B] timely [C] likely [D] invalid
  3. [A] encourages [B] prevents [C] destroys [D] offers
  4. [A] pass out [B] take away [C] back up [D] stir up
  5. [A] who [B] as [C] which [D] what
  6. [A] Moreover [B] However [C] Preliminarily [D] Unexpectedly
  7. [A] that [B] it [C] so [D] this
  8. [A] speech [B] sense [C] message [D] meaning
  9. [A] obscure [B] difficult [C] impossible [D] unable
  10. [A] case [B] means [C] method [D] way
文章结构总体分析 一, 文章结构总体分析
语言中的首要的以及最小的单位是单词.说话时,选词至关重要.恰当地选词可以消除 交流障碍,不慎重的词语会阻碍说话双方的思想交流.
二, 试题解析

  1.[答案] A [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:介词的用法. :介词的用法. 本文第一句提出,对于语言来说,首先可以讨论的最小单位是单词.First 和 smallest 两个形容词已经道出单词在语言中的重要地位.此后,文章进一步指出,说话时选择词语非 常重要.我们看到,空格后是一个名词性短语 utmost importance,而所给的四个选项全是介 词,也就是说所选的介词应该与这个名词性短语组合在一起,做 be 动词的表语. of 的一个特定用法是:of+表示评估意义的抽象名词=该名词对应的形容词,可做表语, 表示具有某种性质,状况.如:of great use=great useful, of importance=important, 所以 A 为 正确选项.
  2. [答案] C [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:逻辑语意搭配 形容词词义辨析. 形容词词义辨析. :逻辑语意搭配+形容词词义辨析 前面已经提到,单词在语言中占有首要地位,因此,说话时对词语的选用就变得非常重
要.本句大意为:恰当的选词可以消除交流过程中......的障碍. likely 意为 "可能发生的" 不论从语法角度, , 还是从逻辑角度讲都非常恰当. inaccessible 表示"难以达到的,难以接近的" ,如:This novel seems to me among the most inaccessible. 这本书对我来说是最难懂的小说之一.我们知道,说话过程中完全可能出现交流的障碍,所 以 inaccessible 不恰当.timely 意为"及时的,准时的" ,如:a timely treatment 及时的治疗. invalid 意为"无效的" ,如:an invalid license 作废的执照,都不符合句意.
  3. [答案] B [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:逻辑语意搭配. :逻辑语意搭配. 上文一直是从正面角度谈论单词在交流中所处的地位, 以及它起到的积极作用; 本句开 始文章从反面角度来讨论这一点.前面已经提到,恰当的选词可以消除交流障碍,由此可以 推出,乱用词语将会增加这种障碍.prevent 意为"防止,阻碍" ,用在文中表示"词语使用 不当阻碍了说话双方思想的交流" ,正好描述了这种增加障碍的反作用,所以是正确答案. encourage 表示"鼓励,怂恿" ,有促进之意,如:I encouraged her to work hard and to try for the examinations.我鼓励她用功并为这次考试做努力. offer 意为 "提供, 出价" 如: offered , I him some money for his help.因为他帮了忙,我给了他一些钱. 以上两个词语与文意要求的含 义正好相反.destroy 意为"毁灭,破坏,消灭" ,它虽然是贬义词,但一般是对已经存在的 事物而言,且语气很强烈,放在此处不合适.
  4. [答案] D [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:动词短语语意辨析. :动词短语语意辨析. 空格所在句子由存在因果关系的两个分句构成.前一分句的主语是 the words,宾语是 unfavorable reactions in the listener(听者不愉快的反应) ;后一分句的含义是"因此,这种说 话者和听者的发送?接收系统就会中断" .从句意判断空格处应该填入一个表达"造成,引 起"含义的短语.stir up 表示"引起,激起" ,为正确选项. pass out 做及物动词时,意为"分发,分配" ;take away 意为"取走" ,back up 意为"支 持,倒退" ,均不符合文意.
  5. [答案] C [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句. :定语从句. 从上一题的分析可知, The words…in the listener 是一个语法结构完整的句子, 因此我们 可以推测 listener 之后的部分为一个定语从句.但要弄清楚的是,这个定语从句修饰的不是 listener,因为 interfere with his comprehension(干扰他的理解)中 his 指代的只能是"听者" , 那么 interfere 的主语应该是前面的 unfavorable reactions.因此,我们可能确定这个定语从句 的先行词为 reactions,which 可引导先行词为事物的定语从句,为正确选项. who 引导先行词为人的定语从句; 引导限制性定语从句需要与 such 结合在一起使用; as what 只能引导名词性从句,不能引导定语从句.
  6. [答案] A [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:逻辑关系. :逻辑关系. 前文一直在讨论不恰当使用词语的害处,本句的主语是 inaccurate or indefinite words, 意为"不准确或不明确的词语" ,可见还是在谈论这种害处,也就是说,与上一句之间仍然 是承接或递进的关系.moreover 意为"此外" ,表示递进关系,符合题意.该句可译为"此 外,不准确或不明确的词语会使听者难以理解传递给他的信息" . however 意为"但是" ,表示转折;preliminarily 意为"首先,起初" ,不表示承接关系; unexpectedly 意为"出乎意料地,想不到地" ,有转折的含义.
  7. [答案] B [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:句子的平衡. :句子的平衡.
英语句中为了保持句子的平衡,常常使用 it 作为形式宾语或形式主语.动词 make 后面 的宾语是不定式时,就常常用 it 做形式宾语,代替后面的不定式.本题空格处填入 it,指代 的就是下文的 to understand the ….that 不能做形式宾语;如果使用 so,则全句找不到 make 的宾语,语法结构不完整;this 不能做形式宾语.
  8. [答案] C [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:逻辑语意搭配 名词词义辨析. 名词词义辨析. :逻辑语意搭配+名词词义辨析 本题空格处填入一名词,紧跟其后的是 which 引导的定语从句.显然,填入的名词在该 从句中做主语,由于该从句使用了被动语态,因此我们要选择的是能够与 transmit 搭配,做 其宾语的名词.transmit 的含义为"发送,传达" ,四个选项中只有 message 可以与之搭配, 表示"传达信息" .speech 意为"演说,讲话" ;sense 意为"感官,感觉" ;meaning 表示"意 思,含义" ,一般不与 transmit 搭配.
  9. [答案] D [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:形容词词辨析. :形容词词辨析. 本句的主语是 the speaker, who 引导了一个定语从句,修饰 speaker.大意是:一个常用 词汇中没有详细而精确词语的人可能……将事情解释或描述得足以让听者听懂.由此看出, 这里还是在讨论不正确使用词语的害处.填入的词既能修饰人,又有否定句义.unable 表示 "不能的,不会的" ,可以修饰人,为正确选项. obscure 意为"暗的,朦胧的,模糊的" ,一般不修饰人,如:an obscure sound 模糊的 声音;an obscure passage 一段难懂的文章.difficult 和 impossible 都不使用本句型,如果使 用这两个词可以把句子转变为:It is difficult/impossible for the speaker to explain…
  10. [答案] D [解析] 本题考核的知识点是:逻辑语意搭配 名词词义辨析. 名词词义辨析. :逻辑语意搭配+名词词义辨析 空格处的名词构成介词短语 in a …,修饰动词 explain or describe,在文中的含义是"说 话人不可能……解释或描述" .in a way 是习惯搭配,表示"以某种方式,方法" ,语法意义 都正确.in a case 表示"在某种情况下" ,不符合句意.means 意为"方法,手段" ,method 意为"方法,方式" ,都不与 in a 搭配,而与介词 by 连用,如:The load was lifted by means of a crane.重物是用起重机吊起来的.They did it by a new method.他们用一种新方法做的.
三,全文翻译
关于语言,首先可以讨论的最小单位是单词.说话的时候,选词是至关重要的.恰当的 选词可以消除交流过程中可能出现的障碍. 通常, 不慎重的词语使用将阻碍说话者和听话者 之间的思想交流.说话者使用的词语可能会引起听者不愉快的反应,干扰他的理解,因此, "传送?接收"系统出现故障.此外,不准确或不明确的词语会使听者难以理解正在传递给 他的信息. 说话人的常用词汇中如果没有详细而精确的词, 就不可能用听话人能理解的方式 进行解释或描述.
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Passage 1 The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-
oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system. The important factor in a private enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property) , and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
  11. In Line 11, Para 1, "the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes" means__. [A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes [B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes [C] Americans want to have their incomes increased [D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes
  12. The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that__. [A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production [B] consumers can express their demands through producers [C] producers decide the prices of products [D] supply and demand regulate prices
  13. According to the passage, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by__. [A] private property and rights concerned [B] manpower and natural resources control [C] ownership of productive resources [D] free contracts and prices
  14. The passage is mainly about__. [A] how American goods are produced [B] how American consumers buy their goods [C] how American economic system works [D] how American businessmen make their profits
一,文章结构总体分析
本文是一篇介绍美国经济结构的文章, 主要论述美国的经济以私营企业为基础, 以市场 经济为导向.文中反复出现的中心词组是 private-enterprise, market-oriented economy system (in America). 第一段: 首句是全文的主题, 即主要讨论美国经济体制的特点是通过私有企业和市场导 向起调节作用. 末句是该段的主题??它将全文中心思想换了一种方式表达, 分析和指出消 费者的需求, 企业家对最大利润的追求和个人对收入取得最大收益的渴望??这三个因素共 同决定着生产什么和如何使用资源进行生产. 第二段:主题词是 price system,首句是该段的主题句,说明市场导向型经济的重要特 点之一是价格机制. 第三段:说明私营经济的性质和特点,即财产私有,同时还拥有相关权利.
二,试题分析

  11. In Line 11, Para 1, "the d
 

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