2009 年江苏各地中考英语阅读理解试题解析
江苏扬州 龚海平 一、试题简析 2009 年江苏各地中考英语阅读理解试题较之于去年在命题的水准上又有了程度不同的 提高,并具有以下几个特点:
  1.命题要求更加符合《英语课程标准(实验稿) 》所提出的“培养学生综合运用语言的能 力”这一要求,既考查了学生的综合语篇分析能力,又考查了学生的英语阅读微技能(如: 根据语境, 考查学生推测生词词义的能力; 通过在题干中对阅读语篇中的话语进行保持原意 的表达调整,考查学生用不同的话语表达方式表达同一意思的话语表达能力;等等) ;
  2.语篇长度较之于往年明显加长, 这就对学生的英语阅读理解的读题与解题速度及英语 语篇阅读策略提出了更高要求;
  3.语篇涉及的的内容多与英语语言文化、学生的英语学习与生活、自然与生命科学、科 普读物、人文社会科学、异域民族风俗习俗及其文化内涵、人物简介和故事等方面有关;
  4.在解题要求上,约 50%的试题都可以直接从语篇中找到答案,约 20%的试题需要考生 经过正向、逆向推导,或逐一排除与语篇表述事实不符/相符的选项,才能间接得出正确答 案;约 15%的试题需要考生经过对语篇段落(南京市的试题在这方面的比重尤其较大)或 整体语篇进行综合分析,才能得出正确答案;约 10%的试题需要考生对上下文进行逻辑推 理,才能推导出生词的词义;
  5.图、表语篇阅读的数量较之于往年有所下降,且对图、表语篇阅读也不再更多的是依 赖于观察图、表,而更多的是依赖于深度语篇,甄别图、表;
  6.“任务型阅读”在一些大市(如:连云港,南京、常州、扬州等市)今年中考英语试题 中不仅有所体现, 而且难度有所加大, 这大概也是主动应对初中英语教育与高中英语教育衔 接之举。 二、学习建议 基于以上分析,笔者建议初三学生在平时的英语学习中要注意以下几点:
  1.要拓宽英语阅读的面, 即要阅读不同题材、 不同体裁的英语语篇, 真正做到广泛阅读;
  2.要加强英语阅读策略的学习和训练, 提高语篇阅读理解的速度。 尤其在平时的阅读中, 不能因为遇到个别生词或生疏的句式结构而中途停下来, 去查阅辞书或语法书, 而要努力根 据上下文,结合具体语境对其加以猜测、推断和理解。
  3.英语阅读理解能力, 既不能脱离英语阅读训练而培养, 也不能仅仅靠其而培养。 须知, 阅读理解能力只是英语语言运用能力的一个方面, 而英语语言能力才是其基础。 如果不夯实 英语语言能力这个基础,那么像南京市试题的第 35 题、无锡市试题的第 34 题、苏州市试题 的第 31 题,考生是很难答对的。
  4.“任务型阅读”是中考英语阅读理解试题命题的一个创新。这个创新,由于具有对学生 综合语言运用能力考查的绝对信度优势,一定具有强大的生命力。因此,笔者以为,这一题 型今后将会在更大范围内普及。这一题型难度相对较大,得分率较低。因此,加强和重点突 出“任务型阅读”训练,对初三学生而言,乃是当务之急! 三、典型试题解析
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  1) Last July, my 12-year-old car died on California’s Santa Freeway. It was an hour before sunset, and I was 25 miles from home. I couldn’t reach anyone to pick me up, so I decided to take a bus. Not knowing the routes, I thought I’s just go east. A bus stopped. I got on and asked the driver how far she was going. “Ten more miles,” she said. There was another bus I could take from here. This clearly was going to be a long night. I got off at the end of the route and she told me which bus to look for. After waiting 30 minutes, I began to think about a very expensive taxi ride home. Then a bus came up. There was no light number above its windshield. It was out of service, but the door opened. It was the same driver. “I just can’t leave you here,” she said. “This isn’t the nicest place. I will give you a ride home.” “You will drive me home on the bus?” I asked, astonished. “No, I will take you in my car,” she said. “It’s a long way,” I insisted. “Come on,” she said. “I have nothing else to do.” As we drove from the station in the car, she began telling me a story. A few days earlier, her brother had run out of gas. A good man picked him up, took him to a service station and then back to his car. “I’m just passing the favour(善意的行为)along,” she said. When I offered her money as a thank-you, she wouldn’t accept. “Just do something nice for somebody. Pass it along,” she said.
  31. There was something wrong with the writer’s car A. late at night C. an hour before sunset .
B. early in the morning D. thirty minutes after sunset .

  32. The writer changed his mind after waiting 30 minutes because A. he became impatient and a bit worried B. a taxi ride would be more comfortable C. he knew the driver would never return D. the bus driver had given him wrong information
  33. The bus driver drove the writer home later because A. her brother had told her to do so B. she wanted to earn more money C. she happened to go in the same direction D. she wanted to do something good for others
  34. The underlined word “astonished” in the passage probably means A. surprised B. grateful C. happy . D. angry .
.

  35. The bus driver hoped that the writer A. would drive someone home
B. would help someone in need
C. would keep her in memory 参考答案与难题解析
D. would give the money to others
这是南京市阅读理解 B 部分的试题。答案:31-35 CADAB。 第 32 题的解题可通过对语篇中的“I began to think about a very expensive taxi ride home.” 这句话的语义分析,推断正确选项。 第 33 题的解题可通过对语篇中公交司机讲述的她哥哥受助于人的事情与“I’m just passing the favour along.”这句话的语义做综合分析,推断正确选项。 第 34 题的词义推测的关键有两个。一是故事情节,作者与公交司机素不相识,对其善 意行为自然感到“吃惊”;二是“You will drive me home on the bus?”这句话的句式结构和语义 也支持选项 A。 (
  2) About ten men in every hundred suffer from colour blindness in some way. Women are luckier. Only about one in two hundred is affected in this matter. So some people say it is safer to be driven by women. There are different forms of colour blindness. In some cases a man may not be able to see deep red. He may think that red, orange and yellow are all shades(色调)of green. Sometimes a person cannot tell the difference between blue and green. In rare cases an unlucky man may see everything in shades of green?a strange world indeed. Colour blindness in humans is a strnage thing to explain. In our eyes there are millions of ery small things called “cones”. These help us to see in a bright light and to tell differences between colours. There are also millions of “rods”, but these are used for seeing when it is nearly dark. They show us shapes but no colour. Some insects have favourite colours. Mosquitoes(蚊子)like blue but do not like yellow. A red light will not attract insects, but a blue lamp will. In a similar way humans also have favourite colours. Yet we are lucky. With the aid of the cones in our eyes we can see many beautiful colours by day, and with the aid of the rods we can see shapes at night. One day we may even learn more about the invisible(看不见得)colours around us.
  29. With the help of the cones, we can A. see in a weak light C. kill mosquitoes . B. tell different shapes D. tell orange from yellow

  30. Why do some people say it is safer to be driven by women? A. Women are more careful. B. There are fewer colour-blind women. C. All of them see everything in shades of green. D. None of them has trouble in recognizing(识别)colours.
  31. This passage is mainly about A. colour and its surprising effects C. colour blindness . B. danger caused by colour blindness D. the invisible colours around us
参考答案与难题解析 这是无锡市阅读理解 B 部分的试题。答案:29-31 DBC。 第三段中的“These help us to see in a bright light and to tell differences between colours.”这 句话支持选项 D,因为“tell differences between…”即“tell… from…”的意思。 第 31 题考查的是学生的语篇概括能力。A、B、D 三个选项不是片面、就是文中未及,均不 能涵盖全文
(
  3) Spending two or three hours playing outdoors each day can reduce a child’s chance of becoming short-sighted, a research shows. It challenges (挑战) the belief that short-sightedness is caused by computer use, watching TV or reading in weak light. The Australian government researchers believe that sunlight is good for people’s eyes. They compared the vision(视力) and habits of 100 seven-year-old children in Singapore and Australia. In all, 30% of the Singaporean children were short-sighted?this rate(比率) was ten times higher than Australian children. Both groups spent a similar amount of time reading, watching television and playing computer games. However, the Australian children spent an average(平均) of two hours a day outdoors?90 minutes more than the Singaporean children. Professor(教授) Ian Morgan, from the Australian Research Council’s Vision Centre, said, “Humans are naturally long-sighted, but when people begin to go to school and spend little or no time outdoors, the number of short-sighted people gets larger. We’re also seeing more and more short-sighted children in cities all around the world?and the main reason may be that city children spend less time outdoors.” Daylight can be hundreds of times brighter than indoor light. But why does playing outside prevent us from becoming short-sighted? Scientists believe that natural light has a special chemical(化学物质) which stops the eyeball from growing out of shape and prevents people becoming short-sighted. So be outdoors. It doesn’t matter if that time is spent having a picnic or playing sports.
  24. How much time did the Singaporean children spend outdoors on average every day in the research? A. 2 hours. B. 90 minutes. C. 1 hour. D. 30 minutes.
  25. What is the fifth paragraph mainly about? A. Why people become short-sighted. B. Why natural light has a special chemical. C. Why playing outside is good for one’s eyesight. D. Why daylight is much brighter than indoor light.
  26. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A. People will all become short-sighted after they begin to go to school. B. Playing outdoors for 2 or 3 hours every day can help protect your eyesight. C. Children in Australia are more likely to get short-sighted than those in Singapore. D. If you spend two or three hours playing outside each day, you won’t get short-sighted. 参考答案与难题解析 这是常州市阅读理解 B 部分的试题。答案:24-26 DCB。 第 24 题的解题需要通过简单计算得出结论。“However, the Australian children spent an average(平均) of two hours a day outdoors?90 minutes more than the Singaporean children.”这句话表明,澳大利亚孩子平均户外活动为两小时, 比新加坡孩子平均户外活动时间多 90 分钟,那么新加坡孩子平均户外活动时间 则为 30 分钟。 第 25 题考查的是学生的段落概括能力。在概括段落大意时,要注意一点, 即一个段落开头的话语往往就是该段落的主题。“But why does playing outside prevent us from becoming short-sighted?”这句话开启了整个段落。 第 26 题考查的是学生的整体语篇概括能力。根据语篇,上学行为并不直接 导致学生近视,“spend little or no time outdoors”才是真正原因,因此选项 A 是 错的;选项 C 与事实不符;选项 D 的这一说法不仅绝对,而且文中未及。 (
  4) I was in line waiting to pay. In line there were two people before me. A little boy was buying some rather strange clothes. He chatted with anyone who was interested in the clothes and soon we learnt that he was going to a kindergarten(幼儿园) party. He had done a great job of putting together interesting costumes. I noticed that the little boy was paying mostly with change(零钱). It seemed that he had robbed his pig bank(猪形储蓄罐) to do this shopping. However, the cashier told him he was short after counting all the money. The boy thought for a moment and said, “Please keep the shirt and I will come back with more money.” It was clear that he had already used all the money he had and he was $
  8.00 short. The lady in front of me said, “Well, I could pay half of that.” I told the boy that I could pay the other half. We dug into our handbags. However, both of us only had ten-dollar bills(纸币) and we needed the cashier to get the change for us. Other shoppers began digging into their pockets to find some change. It was amazing and touching as all these strangers seemed to react(反应) with the same mind. All wanted to be of help. Within minutes
 

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