TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (20
  09) -GRADE EIGHTTIME LIMIT: 195 MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN)
SECTION A MINI-LECTURE In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Writing Experimental Reports I.Content of an experimental report, e.g. study subject/ area study purpose 1 II.Presentation of an experimental report providing details regarding readers as 2 III.Structure of an experimental report feature: highly structured and 3 sections and their content: INTRODUCTION 4; why you did it METHOD how you did it RESULT what you found out 5 what you think it shows IV. Sense of readership 6: reader is the marker 7: reader is an idealized, hypothetical, intelligent person with little knowledge of your study tasks to fulfill in an experimental report: introduction to relevant area necessary background information development of clear arguments definition of technical terms precise description of data 8 V. Demands and expectations in report writing early stage: understanding of study subject/area and its implications basic grasp of the report’s format later stage: 9 on research significance things to avoid in writing INTRODUCTION: inadequate material 10 of research justification for the study SECTION B INTERVIEW In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.
  1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? A. Toastmasters was originally set up to train speaking skills. B. Toastmasters only accepts prospective professional speakers. C. Toastmasters accepts members from the general public. D. Toastmasters is an exclusive club for professional speakers.
  2. The following are job benefits by joining Toastmasters EXCEPT A. becoming familiar with various means of communication.
B. learning how to deliver messages in an organized way. C. becoming aware of audience expectations. D. learning how to get along with friends.
  3. Toastmasters' general approach to training can be summarized as A. practice plus overall training. B. practice plus lectures. C. practice plus voice training. D. practice plus speech writing.
  4. Toastmasters aims to train people to be all the following EXCEPT A. public speakers. B. grammar teachers. C. masters of ceremonies. D. evaluators.
  5. The interview mainly focuses on A. the background information. B. the description of training courses. C. the requirements of public speaking. D. the overall personal growth. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Questions 6 and 7 are'based on the foUowing news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  6. Which of the following is the main cause of global warming? A. Fossil fuel. B. Greenhouse gases. C. Increased dryness. D. Violent storm patterns.
  7. The news item implies that in the last report. A. there were fewer studies done B. there were fewer policy proposals C. there was less agreement D. there were fewer objectives Questions 8 and 9 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
  8. The cause of the Indian train accident was A. terrorist sabotage. B. yet to be determined. C. lack of communications. D. bad weather.
  9. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? A. The accident occurred on a bridge. B. The accident occurred in New Delhi. C. There were about 600 casualties. D. Victims were rescued immediately. Question 10 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
  10. What is the main message of the news item? A. Young people should seek careers advice. B. Careers service needs to be improved. C. Businesses are not getting talented people. D. Careers advice is not offered on the Intemet. PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN) In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions.
Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet. TEXT A We had been wanting to expand our children's horizons by taking them to a place that was unlike anything we'd been exposed to during our travels in Europe and the United States. In thinking about what was possible from Geneva, where we are based, we decided on a trip to Istanbul, a two-hour plane ride from Zurich. We envisioned the trip as a prelude to more exotic ones, perhaps to New Delhi or Bangkok later this year, but thought our 11- and 13-year-olds needed a first step away from manicured boulevards and pristine monuments. What we didn't foresee was the reaction of friends, who warned that we were putting our children "in danger," referring vaguely, and most incorrectly, to disease, terrorism or just the unknown. To help us get acquainted with the peculiarities of Istanbul and to give our children a chance to choose what they were particularly interested in seeing, we bought an excellent guidebook and read it thoroughly before leaving. Friendly warnings didn't change our planning, although we might have more prudently checked with the U.S. State Department's list of troublespots. We didn't see a lot of children among the foreign visitors during our six-day stay in Istanbul, but we found the tourist areas quite safe, very interesting and varied enough even to suit our son, whose oft-repeated request is that we not see "every single" church and museum in a given city. Vaccinations weren't needed for the city, but we were concemed about adapting to the water for a short stay. So we used bottled water for drinking and brushing our teeth, a precaution that may seem excessive, but we all stayed healthy. Taking the advice of a friend, we booked a hotel a 20-minute walk from most of Istanbul's major tourist sites. This not only got us some morning exercise, strolling over the Karakoy Bridge, but took us past a colorful assortment of fishermen, vendors and shoe shiners. From a teenager and pre-teen's view, Istanbul street life is fascinating since almost everything can be bought outdoors. They were at a good age to spend time wandering the labyrinth of the Spice Bazaar, where shops display mounds of pungent herbs in sacks. Doing this with younger children would be harder simply because the streets are so packed with people; it would be easy to get lost. For our two, whose buying experience consisted of department stores and shopping mall boutiques, it was amazing to discover that you could bargain over price and perhaps end up with two of something for the price of one. They also learned to figure out the relative value of the Turkish lira, not a small matter with its many zeros. Being exposed to Islam was an important part of our trip. Visiting the mosques, especially the enormous Blue Mosque, was our first glimpse into how this major religion is practiced. Our children's curiosity already had been piqued by the five daily calls to prayer over loudspeakers in every corner of the city, and the scarves covering the heads of many women. Navigating meals can be troublesome with children, but a kebab, bought on the street or in restaurants, was unfailingly popular. Since we had decided this trip was not for gourmets, kebabs spared us the agony of trying to find a restaurant each day that would suit the adults' desire to try something new amid children's insistence that the food be served immediately. Gradually, we branched out to try some other Turkish specialties. Although our son had studied Islam briefly, it is impossible to be prepared for every awkward question that might come up, such as during our visits to the Topkapi Sarayi, the Ottoman Sultans' palace. No guides were available so it was do-it-yourself, using our guidebook, which cheated us of a lot of interesting history and anecdotes that a professional guide could provide. Next time, we resolved to make such arrangements in advance. On this trip, we wandered through the magnificent complex, with its imperial treasures, its courtyards and its harem. The last required a bit of explanation that we would have happily lef~ to a learned third party.
  11. The couple chose Istanbul as their holiday destination mainly because A. the city is not too far away from where they lived. B. the city is not on the list of the U.S. State Department. C. the city is between the familiar and the exotic. D. the city is more familiar than exotic.
  12. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
A. The family found the city was exactly what they had expected. B. Their friends were opposed to their holiday plan. C. They could have been more cautious about bringing kids along. D. They were a bit cautious about the quality of water in the city.
  13. We learn from the couple's shopping experience back home that A. they were used to bargaining over price. B. they preferred to buy things outdoors. C. street markets were their favourite. D. they preferred fashion and brand names.
  14. The last two paragraphs suggest that to visit places of interest in Istanbul A. guidebooks are very useful. B. a professional guide is a must. C. one has to be prepared for questions. D. one has to make arrangements in advance.
  15. The family have seen or visited all the following in Istanbul EXCEPT A. religious prayers. B. historical buildings. C. local-style markets. D. shopping mall boutiques. TEXT B Last month the first baby-boomers turned
  60. The bulky generation born between 1946 and 1964 is heading towards retirement. The looming "demographic cliff" will see vast numbers of skilled workers dispatched from the labour force. The workforce is ageing across the rich world. Within the EU the number of workers aged between 50 and 64 will increase by 25% over the next two decades, while those aged 20-29 will decrease by 20%. In Japan almost 20% of the population is already over 65, the highest share in the world. And in the United States the number of workers aged 55-64 will have increased by more than half in this decade, at the same time as the 35- to 44-year-olds decline by 10%. Given that most societies are geared to retirement at around 65, companies have a looming problem of knowledge management, of making sure that the boomers do not leave before they have handed over their expertise along with the office keys and their e-mail address. A survey of human-resources directors by IBM last year concluded: "When the baby-boomer generation retires, many companies will find out too late that a career's worth of experience has walked out the door, leaving insufficient talent to fill in the void." Some also face a shortage of expertise. In aerospace and defence, for example, as much as 40% of the workforce in some companies will be eligible to retire within the next five years. At the same time, the number of engineering graduates in developed countries is in steep decline. A few companies are so squeezed that they are already taking exceptional measures. Earlier this year the Los Angeles Times interviewed an enterprising Australian who was staying in Beverly Hills while he tried to persuade locals to emigrate to Toowoomba, Queensland, to work for his engineering company there. Toowoomba today; the rest of the developed world tomorrow? If you look hard enough, you can find companies that have begun to adapt the workplace to older workers. The AARP, an American association for the over-50s, produces an annual list of the best employers of its members. Health-care firms invariably come near the top because they are one of the industries most in need of skilled labour. Other sectors similarly affected, says the Conference Board, include oil, gas, energy and government. Near the top of the AARP's latest list comes Deere & Company, a no-nonsense industrial-equipment manufacturer based in Illinois; about 35% of Deere's 46,000 employees are over 50 and a number of them are in their 70s. The tools it uses to achieve that - flexible working, telecommuting, and so forth - also coincidentaUy help older workers to extend their working lives. The company spends "a lot of time" on the ergonomics of its factories, making jobs there less tiring, which enables older workers to stay at them for longer. Likewise, for more than a decade, Toyota, arguably the world's most advanced manufacturer, has adapted its workstations to older workers. The shortage of skilled labour available to the automotive industry has made it unusually keen to recruit older workers. BMW recently set up a factory in Leipzig that expressly set out to employ people over the age of
 

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