现在完成时用法 现在完成时的构成:助动词 have(has)+ 过去分词,
  1.表示过去发生或完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果.例如: I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服. ("洗衣服"是发生在过去的动作,对现在造成的结果是"衣服干净了") 现在完成时常用的时间状语有: already ("已经" 用于肯定句的中间和末尾处) never ("从不" 用于中间处) ever ("曾经" 用于疑问句和肯定句的中间处) just ("刚刚" 用于中间处) yet ("已经" 用于疑问句的末尾处 / "还" 用于否 定句的末尾处) 或不加任何的时间状语,但不能和表示过去的时间状 语连用. 现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较 现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成 的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去.试比较:
The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了. (说明现在的情况:飞机在这儿) The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的. (强调动作发生的时间在过去) I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年. (表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在,还 可能会继续. ) I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年. (表示"我"现在已经不在这儿任教了)
Since 和 for 的用法 表示过去已经开始持续到现在的动作或状态常用的时间状语有: since, how long, so far, for, these days 等. Since+过去点的时间,for+一段时间(数词+量词) ,此划线部分用 how long 提问. 一,since 短语或从句表示过去的动作延续至今,since 之后的时间为一点. 如:
Mr. Smith has worked here since 19
  84. 1984 年以来,史密斯先生一直在这工作. He's learned about 5,000 English words since he went to college. 他上大学以来大约学了五千个英语单 词.
二,for 短语表示动作延续多长时间,for 的宾语为时间段. 如:
We have known each other for twenty years. 我们认识有二十年了. I haven't seen her for a long time. 我好久没有见到她了.
练习: I.翻译下列句子:
  1. 你曾经吃过鱼和薯条吗?
  2. 我刚刚丢了我的化学书.

  3. 我以前从来没去过那个农场.
  4. 他已经吃过午饭了.
  5. 你已经看过这部电影了吗?
  6. 我哥哥还没回来.
  7. 我上星期看过这部电影.
  8. 在 1992 年他住在这里. II. 用过去时或现在完成时填空:
  1. " you (have) lunch ?" "Yes." "When you (have) it?" "I (have) it at 12:
  00."
  2. " you (write) a letter to your aunt yet?" "Yes, I . I (write) one last week."
  3. " he (finish) his homework?" "Not yet."
  4. " they ever (be) abroad?" "Yes, just once."
  5. Your father just (finish) his work.
  6. Your father (finish) his work just now.
  7. Last term I (learn) many English words.
  8. They (not read) the interesting books yet.
  9. He never (go) to the science museum.
  10. you ever (drink) coke?
  11. " you (buy) a dictionary? " "Yes, I ." "Where you (buy) it?" " I (buy) it in a bookstore." "When you (buy) it?" " Yesterday."
练习:用 since 和 for 填空
  1) two years
  4) 1999
  7) 4 hours children
  10) lunch time

  2) two years ago
  5) yesterday
  8) an hour ago
  11) she left here

  3) last month
  6) 4 o'clock
  9) we were

  1. He has lived in Nanjing the year before last.
  2. I've known him we were children.
  3. Our teacher has studied Japanese three years.
  4. She has been away from the city about ten years.
  5. It's about ten years she left the city.

  2.短暂性转换延续性 ①arrive at/in sw. get to/reach sw. come/go/move to sw. → be in sw./at school/at home/on the farm/be here/be there
  1) He got to Beijing five minutes ago. He Beijing for .
  2) I moved to the USA last year. I the USA since .
  3) I went home yesterday. I home for .
  4) They came here last week. They here since . ②come/go back, return → be back come/go out → be out
  1) He came out two years ago. He for .
  2) We return to Fuzhou yesterday. We to Fuzhou since . ③become → be
  1) I became a teacher in 20
  00. I a teacher for .
  2) The river became dirty last year. The river dirty for . ④close → be closed open → be open
  1) The shop closed two hours ago. The shop for .
  2) The door opened at six in the morning. The door for six hours. ⑤get up → be up die → be dead leave sw. → be away from sw. fall asleep/get tot sleep → be asleep finish/end → be over marry → be married
  1) I got up two hours ago. I since .
  2) He left Fuzhou just now. He Fuzhou for five minutes.
  3) My grandpa died in 20
  02. My grandpa for .
  4) The meeting finished at six. The meeting for six hours.
  5) I got to sleep two hours ago. I since .
  6) They married in 19
  90. They since . ⑥start/begin to do sth. → do sth. begin → be on

  1) I began to teach at this school in 19
  95. I at this school since .
  2) The film began two minutes ago. The film for . ⑦borrow → keep lose → not have buy → have put on → wear
catch/get a cold → have a cold get to know → know
  1) They borrowed it last week. They it since .
  2) I bought a pen two hours ago. I a pen for .
  3) I got to know him last year. I him since .
  4) I put on my glasses three years ago. I my glasses for . ⑧have/has gone to → have been in
  1) He has gone to Beijing. He Beijing for two days. ⑨join the league/the Party/the army → be a league/a Party member/a soldier → be a member of the league/the Party → be in the league/the Party/the army
  1) He joined the league in 20
  02. He a for two years. He a the for two years. He the league for two years.
  2) My brother joined the army two years ago. My brother a for . My brother in for two years.
  3.汉译英
  1)这本字典我已买了三年了.
  2)他离开中国三年了.
  3)我认识他们五年了.
  4)他们已去了美国五年了.
  5)自从他搬到福州,他就住这儿了.
  6)他们已经结婚 10 年.
  7)我妹妹成为一个大学生已经三年.

  8)这会已开了多长时间了?
  9)这门已经关了两天了.
  10)我入团 2 年了. I two years ago. I a for two years. I a of for two years. I the for two years.
  11)自从 1999 年以来他们就认识.
  12)我来到农场已 5 年了.
  4.划线提问
  1) I have been there for two days. you ?
  2) My father has lived here since 20
  00. your father ?
  3) He left here yesterday. he ?
  4) They bought a book two hours ago. they a book? have been in, have been to 与 have gone to 的用法 一, have(has) been in 表示"在某地呆多长时间", 常与表示一段时间的状语连用, since, 如: for, how long 等.例如:
Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗先生来上海已经有三天了.
此外还有这些搭配: have been here (there) /at home (school) /on the farm
have been here (there) / abroad
二,have(has)been to 表示"曾经去过某地",现在已经不在那里了.可与 just, ever, never 等连用,例如: I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了.
Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城. Have you ever been to Hangzhou? 你曾经去过杭州吗?
have(has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次.例如:
I have been to Beijing three times. 我去过北京三次. They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了.
三,have(has) gone to 意为"到某地去了",表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中.总之,说 话时该人不在现场,一般不用第一,第二人称代词作句子的主语. He has gone to the bookshop. 汤姆在哪里?他到书店去了. 例如:Where is Tom?
Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了.
练习: I. 用 have(has) been 或 have(has) gone 填空. A: Where Li Fei ? B: He to Hainan Island. A: How long he there? B: He there for three days. A: When will he come back , do you know? B: I'm afraid he won't come back recently. A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island? B: Sorry, I never there. A: How many times Li Fei to that place? B: He there only once. II. 用 have/has been to/in, have gone to 及 go 的各种形式填空.
  1) Where is Jack? He his country.
  2) David the park just now.
  3) John England since he came back.
  4) How long have this village?
  5) The Smiths Beijing for years.
  6) you ever America? -- Yes, I there many times.
  7) I this school since three years ago.
  8) Where is Jim? He the farm.
  9) When he ? He an hour ago.
  10) Would you like to the zoo with me? Yes, but I there before.
  11) Where you now? I the zoo.
  12) He often swimming.
  13) you there last year?
  14) they often skating in winter? III.翻译下列句子:
  1. 他已经来中国三年多了.
  2. 他们出国两个月了.
  3. 我从来没去过长城.
  4. 你曾经出过国吗?
  5. 他已经去图书馆了.
  6. 他来这儿五年了.

  7. 昨天他去了公园.
  8. "你要去哪里?" "我要去学校."
  9. 他常常去游泳.
综合练习: I. 用 never, ever, already, yet, for, since 填空
  1. I have seen him before, so I have no idea about him.
  2. Jack has finished his homework an hour ago.
  3. Mr. Wang has taught in this school ten years.
  4. "Have you seen the film?" "No, I have seen it."
  5. "Has the bus left ?" "Yes, it has left." II. 翻译下列句子:
  1. 他们已经打扫了教室吗?
  2. 我们已经认识有二十年了.
  3. 打那以后,她一直住在这.
  4. "你曾经到过那里吗?" "不,我从来没到过那里." III. 用适当的时态填空:
  1.She's (live) here ever since she was ten.
  2.Both of them (be) in Hongkong for ten days.
  3.Both of them (come) to Hongkong ten days ago.
  4. Half an hour (pass) since the train (leave).
  5. Mary(lose) her pen. you (see) it here and there?
  6. you (find) your watch yet?
  7. Are you thirsty? No I just (have) some orange.
  8. We already (return) the book.
  9. they (build) a new school in the village?
  10. I (not finish) my homework . Can you help me?
  11. My father (read) the novel twice.
  12. I (buy) a book just now.
  13. I (lost ) my watch yesterday.
  14. My father (read) this book since yesterday. III.句型转换:
  1. He has already gone home. (否定句) he home ? (疑问句)
He
home .

  2. He has lunch at home.
  3. He has been there twice. (划线提问)
  4. I have lunch at school. 提问)
He lunch at home. (否定句) he lunch at home? (疑问句) he been there? you lunch. (划线
 

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