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2010 年 6 月大学英语六级考试阅读真题 PartⅡ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) Ⅱ Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet
  1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Obama’s success isn’t all good news for black Americans As Erin White watched the election results head towards victory for Barack Obama, she felt a burden lifting from her shoulders. “In that one second, it was a validation for my whole race,” she recalls. “I’ve always been an achiever,”says White, who is studying for an MBA at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.“But there had always been these things in the back of my mind questioning whether I really can be who I want. It was like a shadow, following me around saying you can only go so far. Now it’s like a barrier has been let down.” White’s experience is what many psychologists had expected?that Obama would prove to be a powerful role model for African Americans. Some hoped his rise to prominence would have a big impact on white Americans, too, challenging those who still harbour racist sentiments. “The traits that characterise him are very contradictory to the racial stereotypes that black people are aggressive and uneducated,” says Ashby Plant of Florida State University. “He’s very intelligent and eloquent.” Sting in the tail Ashby Plant is one of a number of psychologists who seized on Obama’s candidacy to test hypotheses about the power of role models. Their work is already starting to reveal how the “Obama effect”is changing people’s views and behaviour. Perhaps surprisingly, it is not all good news: there is a sting in the tail of the Obama effect. But first the good news. Barack Obama really is a positive role model for African Americans, and he was making an impact even before he got to the White House. Indeed, the Obama effect can be surprisingly immediate and powerful, as Ray Friedman of Vanderbilt University and his colleagues discovered. They tested four separate groups at four key stages of Obama’s presidential campaign. Each group consisted of around 120 adults of similar age and education, and the test assessed their language skills. At two of these stages, when Obama’s success was less than certain, the tests showed a clear difference between the scores of the white and black participants?an average of
  12.1 out of 20, compared to
  8.8, for example. When the Obama fever was at its height, however, the black participants performed much better. Those who had watched Obama’s acceptance speech as the Democrats’ presidential candidate performed just as well, on average, as the white subjects. After his election victory, this was true of all the black participants. Dramatic shift What can explain this dramatic shift? At the start of the test, the participants had to declare their race and were told their results would be used to assess their strengths and weaknesses. This should have primed the subjects with “stereotype threat”?an anxiety that their results will confirm negative stereotypes, which has been shown to damage the performance of African Americans.
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Obama’s successes seemed to act as a shield against this.“We suspect they felt inspired and energised by his victory, so the stereotype threat wouldn’t prove a distraction,”says Friedman. Lingering racism If the Obama effect is positive for African Americans, how is it affecting their white compatriots(同胞)?Is the experience of having a charismatic(有魅力的) black president modifying lingering racist attitudes? There is no easy way to measure racism directly, instead psychologists assess what is known as “implicit bias” using a computer-based test that measures , how quickly people associate positive and negative words?such as “love” “evil”?with photos or of black or white faces. A similar test can also measure how quickly subjects associate stereotypical traits?such as athletic skills or mental ability?with a particular group. In a study that will appear in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Plant’s team tested 229 students during the height of the Obama fever. They found that implicit bias had fallen by as much as 90% compared with the level found in a similar study in 20
  06.“That’s an unusually large drop,”Plant says. While the team can’t be sure their results are due solely to Obama, they also showed that those with the lowest bias were likely to subconsciously associate black skin colour with political words such as “government” or “president”. This suggests that Obama was strongly on their mind, says Plant. Drop in bias Brian Nosek of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, who runs a website that measures implicit bias using similar tests, has also observed a small drop in bias in the 700 000 visitors to the site since January 2007, which might be explained by Obama’s rise to popularity. However, his preliminary results suggest that change will be much slower coming than Plant’s results suggest. Talking honestly “People now have the opportunity of expressing support for Obama every day,” says Daniel Effron at Stanford University in California. “Our research arouses the concern that people may now be more likely to raise negative views of African Americans.” On the other hand, he says, it may just encourage people to talk more honestly about their feelings regarding race issues, which may not be such a bad thing. Another part of the study suggests far more is at stake than the mere expression of views. The Obama effect may have a negative side. Just one week after Obama was elected president, participants were less ready to support policies designed to address racial inequality than they had been two weeks before the election. Huge obstacles It could, of course, also be that Obama’s success helps people to forget that a disproportionate number of black Americans still live in poverty and face huge obstacles when trying to overcome these circumstances.“Barack Obama’s family is such a salient(出色的) image, we generalise it and fail to see the larger picture?that there’s injustice in every aspect of American life,”says Cheryl Kaiser of the University of Washington in Seattle. Those trying to address issues of racial inequality need to constantly remind people of the inequalities that still exist to counteract the Obama effect, she says. Though Plant’s findings were more positive, she too warns against thinking that racism and racial inequalities are no longer a problem.“The last thing I want is for people to think
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everything’s solved.” These findings do not only apply to Obama, or even just to race. They should hold for any role model in any country.“There’s no reason we wouldn’t have seen the same effect on our views of women if Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin had been elected,” says Effron. So the election of a female leader might have a downside for other women. Beyond race We also don’t yet know how long the Obama effect?both its good side and its bad?will last. Political sentiment is notoriously changeable: What if things begin to go wrong for Obama, and his popularity slumps? And what if Americans become so familiar with having Obama as their president that they stop considering his race altogether?“Over time he might become his own entity,”says Plant. This might seem like the ultimate defeat for racism, but ignoring the race of certain select individuals?a phenomenon that psychologists call subtyping?also has an insidious(隐伏的) side. “We think it happens to help people preserve their beliefs, so they can still hold on to the previous stereotypes.” That could turn out to be the cruellest of all the twists to the Obama effect.
  1. How did Erin White feel upon seeing Barack Obama’s victory in the election? A) Excited. B) Victorious. C) Relieved. D) Anxious.
  2. Before the election, Erin White had been haunted by the question of whether. A) she could obtain her MBA degree B) she was really an achiever as a student C) she was overshadowed by her white peers D) she could go as far as she wanted in life
  3. What is the focus of Ashby Plant’s study? A) Racist sentiments in America. B) The power of role models. C) The dual character of African Americans. D) Personality traits of successful blacks.
  4. In their experiments, Ray Friedman and his colleagues found that. A) whites’ attitude towards blacks has dramatically changed B) Obama’s success impacted blacks’ performance in language tests C) Obama’s election has eliminated the prejudice against blacks D) blacks and whites behaved differently during the election
  5. What do Brian Nosek’s preliminary results suggest? A) Bias against blacks has experienced an unusual drop. B) Obama’s popularity may decline as time passes by. C) The change in bias against blacks is slow in coming. D) Website visitors’ opinions are far from being reliable.
  6. A negative side of the Obama effect is that. A) people are now less ready to support policies addressing racial inequality B) relations between whites and African Americans may become tense again C) white people are likely to become more critical of African Americans D) more people have started to criticise President Obama’s racial policies
  7. Cheryl Kaiser holds that people should be constantly reminded that. A) racial inequality still persists in American society B) blacks still face obstacles in political participation C) Obama is but a rare example of blacks’ excellence
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D) Obama’s success is sound proof of black’ potential
  8. According to Effron, if Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin had been elected, there would also have been a negative effect on.
  9. It is possible that the Obama effect will be short-lived if there is a change in people’s.
  10. The worst possible aspect of the Obama effect is that people could ignore his race altogether and continue to hold on to their old racial. PartⅣ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) Ⅳ Section A Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet
  2. Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage. Question: My ninth-grade art teacher doesn’t give any grade above 94% because, she says, “There’s always room for improvement.” In previous years, I earned a 99% and a 100%. The 94 I received this term does not reflect the hard work that I put into this course. Because of her “improvement” theory, I got a lower grade than I deserve. Is her grading philosophy ethical(符合 职业道德规范的)? Answer: Your teacher’s grading system may be unwise, but it is not unethical. A teacher deserves wide latitude in selecting the method of grading that best promotes learning in her classroom; that is, after all, the prime function of grades. It is she who has the training and experience to make this decision. Assuming that your teacher is neither biased nor corrupt and that her system conforms to school rules, you can’t fault her ethics. You can criticize her methodology. A 100 need not imply that there is no possibility of improvement, only that a student successfully completed the course work. A ninth grader could get a well-earned 100 in English class but still have a way to go before she writes as well as Jane Austen. What’s more, grades are not only an educational device but are also part of a screening system to help assign kids to their next class or program. By capping her grades at 94 while most other teachers grade on a scale that tops out at 100, your teacher could jeopardize a student’s chance of getting a scholarship or getting into a top college. What it is wrong to condemn her for is overlooking your hard work. Your diligence is worthy of encouragement, but effort does not equal accomplishment. If scholars suddenly discovered that Rembrandt had dashed off “The Night Watch” in an afternoon, it would still be “The Night Watch” I could spend months sweating over my own “paintings” but I’d produce something you . , wouldn’t want to hang in your living room. Or your garage. One feature of a good grading system is that those measured by it generally regard it as fair and reasonable?not the case here. Simmering(难以平息的) resentment is seldom an aid to education. And so your next step should be to discuss your concerns with your teacher or the principal.
  47. The ninth-grader thought that his art teacher should have given him.
  48. According to the answer, a teacher should have the freedom to to encourage learning.
  49. We learn from the answer that a student who gets a 100 should still work hard and
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keep.
  50. The example
 

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