明天此时,你已经到达 上海了. tense
  7.现在进行时 现在进行时的基本用法: a.)表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情.例如: We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你. b.)习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行.例如: Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说. (说话时并未在写, 只处于写作的状态. ) c.)表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等.例如: The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红. It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了. d.)与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状 态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩.例如: You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意. tense *不用进行时的动词
  1) 表示事实状态的动词, have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, 如 matter, weigh, measure, continue 等.例如:I have two brothers. 我有两兄弟. This house belongs to my sister. 这房子是我姐的.
  2)表示心理状态的动词,如 know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate
等.例如:I need your help. 我需要你的帮助. He loves her very much. 他爱她很深.
  3)瞬间动词,如 accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse 等.例如: I accept your advice. 我接受你的劝告.
  4)系动词,如 seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn 等.例如: You seem a little tired. 你看上去有点累. tense
  8.过去进行时
  1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作.
  2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短 动作发生.
  3) 常用的时间状语有 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 等.例如: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我兄弟 骑车时摔了下来,受了伤. It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨. When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时, 阳光灿烂. tense
  9.将来进行时
  1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情.例如: She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的. I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他. 注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.
  2)常用的时间状语有 soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening 等.例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢. tense ★特别关注:
  1.一般现在时代替一般将来时 When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately 等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时.例如: He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就 去看他姨妈. tense
  2.一般现在时代替一般过去时 1 ) "书上说","报纸上说"等.例如: The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷 的.
  2) 叙述往事,使其生动.例如: Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.拿破仑的军队正在
向前挺进,大战开始了. tense
  3.一般现在时代替现在完成时
  1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时,如 hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember 等.例如: I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦. I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 我忘了他多大了.
  2) 用句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …".例如: It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来,五年 过去了. tense
  4.一般现在时代替现在进行时. 在 Here comes…/There goes…等句型里,用一般现在时代替现在进行时.例如: There goes the bell. 铃响了. ?tense
  5.现在进行时代替将来时
  1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动.例如: Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗? We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走.
  2) 渐变动词,如 get, run, grow, become, begin 以及瞬间动词 die 等.例如: He is dying. 他要死了. tensetense

  6.时态与常用时间状语的搭配: 时态 时间状语 一般现在时 every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday 等 一般过去时 yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now 等 一般将来时 next…, tomorrow, in+一段时间, before+时间点等 现在完成时 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in the few past years, always, recently lately 等 过去完成时 before, by+过去的时间, until, when, after, once 等 过去进行时 this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while 等 将来进行时 soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening
典型例题及解题分析:
  1.) Your phone number again? I quite catch it. It's 695684
  42. A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't 答案 A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作 发生在过去,因此应用过去时.
  2.)Do you know our town at all? No, this is the first time I here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 答案 B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选 B.
  3.)Have you been to our town before? No, it's the first time I here. A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come 答案 D. ever 意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为 never,此两词常用于完成时. 注意: 非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用. 即动作不发生的状 态是可以持续的. (错)I have received his letter for a month. (对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
  4.)You don't need to describe her. I her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet 答案 B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述.再次, several times 告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时.
  5.)I'm sorry to keep you waiting. Oh, not at all. I here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be 答案 A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时.
  6.)The students busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she in the office. A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 答案 D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一 动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时.句中 when 表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正 忙于……"这一背景下,when 所引导的动作发生.因此前一句应用过去进行时. 注意: had hardly… when 还没等…… 就…….例如: I had hardly opened the door when I he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打 了我. had no sooner…than 刚…… 就…….例如: He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it. 他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了.
  7.)My dictionary , I have looked for it everywhere but still it. A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found. 答案 D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然 存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时.

  8.)Mary a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 答案 C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时.同时,when 表时间的同时性,"玛丽在 做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时.
  9.)As she the newspaper, Granny asleep. A. read; falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read; was fell 答案 B.句中的 as = when, while,意为"当……之时".描述一件事发生的背景时, 用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生.句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡 着了."句中的 fell(fall 的过去时) ,是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick.
  10.)He said heme a present unless I in doing the experiment. A. had not given; had not succeeded B. would not give; succeeded C. will not give; succeed D. would not give; will succeed. 答案 B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时.本题有 He said,故为过去 式.主句用将来时,故选 B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时.
  11.)表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动.例如: The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天 10 点开门. (实际上每天如此. ) 2,被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语中也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示. 被动语态的基本用法: 不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态. 强调或突出动 作的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略) . (
  1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题. ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化.看下列例句. My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变)(作补语的)不定式前需加 to. ; The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉"尾巴" . The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to,be to,be sure to,used to,have to,had better 等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词. ⑤当句子的谓语为 say,believe,expect,think,know,write,consider,report 等时,被动语态有两种形式: (A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补. (B)用 it 作 形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示.如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first.
Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that … (
  2)不能用被动语态的几种情况. ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中. ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last,hold,benefit,contain,equal,fit,join, mean,cost,look like,consist to 等. ③表示归属的动词,如 have,own,belong to 等. ④表示"希望,意图"的动词,如:wish,want,hope,like,love,hate 等. ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态. ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式,动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态. ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell, write , wash , open , lock 等 ( 此 时 , 句 中 常 会 有 一 些 表 示 性 质 或 动 作 特 征 的 副 词 . 如:well,badly,easily,hard,difficultly 等). (
  3)主动形式表被动意义. ①当 feel,look,smell,taste,sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut,read,sell, wear,write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示"开始,结束,关,停,转,启动"等意义 时. This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗. These novels won't sell well.这些小说不畅销. My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅. The door won't lock.门锁不上. The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香. ②当 break out,take place,shut off,turn off,work out 等动词表示"发生, 关闭,制定"等意思时. The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need,demand,request 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义. ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义. ⑤在"be + 形容词 + to do"中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动. This kind of water isn't fit to drink. The girl isn't easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动. (
  4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况. ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上. ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后. ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed (in sth)穿着… The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (
  5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态.如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态)
The book is well sold.(系表结构) ★特别关注: 一,时态的呼应:在复合句中,从句(主要是宾语从句和状语从句)中的时态,与主句谓语 动词常相互影响,制约,这就叫做时态的呼应,时态的呼应一般有如下的情况. 1,如果主句的谓语动词为现在时态,其从句中的谓语动词应该用什么时态就用什么时 态,如:She knows you have been in Beijing for five
 

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