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二,名词和主谓一致 名词和主谓一致 I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体机构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 成功的事 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 意 义 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 具有动作意义的抽象名词加用 与某些动词(如:have 等)连 ①?I'd likeinformation about the management of your hotel,please. ?Well, you could haveword with the manager. He might be helpful 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词 个体名词 ①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②?How about the Christmas evening party? ?I should say it was a success. 例 ①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 句 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词
名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词
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用,表示某一次短暂的动作
A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) ②They sent us A.a B.an C./ D.the ③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) A.a B.an C./ D.the 类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try
① Many people agree thatknowledge of English is a must ininternational trade today.
表示知识和时间的抽象名词转 换为普通名词时可以用来表示 其中的一部分 A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should haveat school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times ①Oh, John. you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise ②She looked up when I shouted. A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise
抽象名词转换为普通名词可用 来表示"一次,一阵,一种" 具体的行为,事件,现象或结 果.这时名词前往往有形容词 修饰
D.in some surprise
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其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It iswork of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) .英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 1 2 3 4 5 单复数相同 只有复数形式 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也可以作复数 (成 员) 复数形式表示特别含义 加-s 7 表示 "某国人" 单复数同形 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数 III. 主谓一致 规则 情 况 举 例 则 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 例 词 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑 智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants
6
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His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语或从句作主 What he said is very important for us all. 语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 由 what 引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形 用复数形式. 式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结 构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式. what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come. 由连接词 and 或 both…and 连接起来的主语后面, 要用复数 形式的谓语动词.但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式.由 and 连接的并列单数 主 语 前 如 果 分 别 有 no, each, every 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式. either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待.. Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class. Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单 数.若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可 以. None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America.




Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其 He is one of my friends who are working hard. 谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致. He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.
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The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数) ,但 词构成的短语作主语时, 其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) . A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer 名词的数而定. pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 逻 辑 意 义 一 What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数,也可是 复数, 主要靠意思来决定. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument. Which is your bag? Are any of you good at English? All can be done has been done. All have been taken out. Which are your bags? Has any of you got a pen? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing.
Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词 Twenty pounds is too dear. 通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 体. Forty kilos of water are used every day. 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式, 其谓语动 The United States is smaller than China. "The Arabian Nights" is an interesting story-book. 词通常用单数形式.
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致 原 则
表数量的短语"one and a half"后面接复数名词作主语时, One and a half apples is left on the table. 其谓语动词要用单数形式. 一些学科名词是以-ics 结尾, mathematics, politics, physics 如: 以及 news, works 等.都属于形式上是复数的名词, 实际 意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语 时, 谓语用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等量词 修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数. "定冠词 the+形容词或分词" 表示某一类人动词用复数; , 若 表示某一类东西时,动词用单数. 当 两 个 主 语 由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致, 即就近一致. there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语.如果 其后是由 and 连接的两个主语, 则应与靠近的那个主语保 持一致,即就近一致. The paper works was built in 19
  90.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年. I don't think physics is easy to study. My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his. The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all. Either the teacher or the students are our friends. Neither he nor they are wholly right. Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right? There are two chairs and a desk in the room. There is a desk and two chairs in the room.
就 近 /远 一 致 原 则
Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. 主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, A woman with a baby was on the bus. no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. including, in addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语 She, like you and Tom, is very tall. The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese. 一致,即就远一致. No one except my teachers knows anything about it.
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