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二、名词和主谓一致 名词和主谓一致 I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名, 团体机 构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词
特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词
①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success
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in their work. ② ?How about the Christmas evening 成功的事 party? ?I should say it was a success. 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词
①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken
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①?I’d likeinformation about the management of your hotel,please. ?Well, you could haveword with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a ②They sent us 具有动作意义的抽象 名词加用与某些动词 (如:have 等)连 用,表示某一次短暂的 动作 A.a ③Could we have 词) A.a B.an C./ D.the B.an B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a
word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) C./ D.the
word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名
类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点 出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try
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① Many people agree thatknowledge of English is a must ininternational trade today. A.a, / 表示知识和时间的抽 象名词转换为普通名 词时可以用来表示 其中的一部分 B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the
a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should haveat school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time
C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ D.Times 抽象名词转换为普通 名词可用来表示“一 ①Oh, John. you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time
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次、一阵、一种”具体
C.What a pleasant surprise
D. What pleasant surprise when I shouted.
的行为、事件、现象或 ②She looked up 结 A.in a surprise
B.in the surprise
C.in surprise
D.in some
果。这时名词前往往有 surprise 形容词修饰 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It iswork of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual unusual II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) 。英语里有些名词的复 数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 则 例 词 B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an
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man-men, 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 mouse-mice 2 单复数相同 3 只有复数形式
woman-women,
foot-feet,
goose-geese,
sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, compasses, contents goods, glasses,
4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也 5 可以作复数(成员)
people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group,
committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks( 饮 料 ), sands( 沙 滩 ), papers( 文 件 报 纸 ),
6 复数形式表示特别含义 manners( 礼 貌 ), looks( 外 表 ), brains( 头 脑 智 力 ), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)
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Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, 加-s Europeans 表示 “某国 7 人” 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改 Englishmen, Frenchwomen 为-men,-women sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy 将主体名词变为复数 friends 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部分 grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches 变为复数 将两部分变为复数 III. 主谓一致 规 则 情 况 举 例 women singers, men servants 单复数同形 Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese
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His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语 What he said is very important for us all.

后面的谓语动词多 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式; 主 由 what 引导的主语从句, 语为复数时,谓语动词 用复数形式。 数情况用单数形式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主 句的谓语动词用复数形式。

what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. 由连接词 and 或 both…and 连接起来的主语后 Lucy and Lily are twins 面, 要用复数形式的谓语动词。 但若所连接的两 The writer and artist has come.
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个词是指同一个人或物
Every student and every teach is in the
时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and 连接 classroom. 的并列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every Many a boy and many a girl likes it. 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其 No boy and no girl likes it. 原 谓语动词要用单数形式。either, neither, each, Each of us has a new book. every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every here today? 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。. Somebody is speaking in class. around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的 则 谓语动词就要用单数。若它后面的名词是复 数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America. Everything Is everyone
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Those who want to go please write their 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作 names on the blackboard. 主语时, 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一 He is one of my friends who are working hard. 致。 He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.
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The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体, 它的谓语动词用 His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 单数形式; 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) 词用复数形式 Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor. (四班的学生)
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There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 50 percent of the students in our class are 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ girls. the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的 由分数或百分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其 用法(用复数) ,但 the number of +复数名词 。 谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred.
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There comes the bus. pictures. 在倒装句中, 谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 Such is the result. facts.
On the wall are many
Such are the
Between the two hills stands a monument. 逻 Which is your bag? your bags? 辑 What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是 you got a pen? 单数,也可是复数, 主要靠意思来决定。 意 All can be done has been done. going well. 义 All have been taken out. All is Are any of you good at English? Has any of Which are
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Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. 一 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语 Twenty pounds is too dear. 时, 谓语动词通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用 致 的名词在概念上是一个整体。 复数形式 Forty kilos of water are used every day. 原 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形 “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting 式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 则 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复数名词 One and a half apples is left on the table. 作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 story-book. The United States is smaller than China.
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一些学科名词是以-ics 结尾,如:mathematics, The paper works was built in 19
  90.这家造纸 politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。都属于形 厂建于 1990 年。 式上是复数的名词, 实际意义为单数名词,它 I don’t think physics is easy to study. 们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等 My glasses are broken. 词作主语时, 谓语用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 The pair of shoes under the bed is his. a(the) pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词”表示某一类人动词 The old are taken good care of there. , 用复数;若表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。 The beautiful gives pleasure to all.
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Either the teacher or the students are our 就 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but friends. 近 also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主 Neither he nor they are wholly right. /远 语保持一致,即就近一致。 一 Is neither he nor they wholly right? 致 there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 原 的主语。如果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语, There is a desk and two chairs in the room. 则 则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Neither they nor he is wholly right.
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Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. A woman with a baby was on the bus. 主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more playground. than, besides, along with, including, in addition to She, like you and Tom, is very tall. 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语一致,即就 The girls as well as the boy have learned to 远一致。 speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it.
  1. enable sb to do sth 使某人能做某事 eg. The computer enables people to communicate with each other more conveniently. /计算机使人们彼此间能更方 便地交流。
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  2. be about to do sth… when 正要做某事……突然…… eg. I was about to go shopping when it suddenly began to rain. /我刚要出去买东西,天就突然下雨了。
  3. by accident / by chance / accidentally 偶然地
  4. come across sb 偶然遇见
  5. act on sth 依……行事 eg. Each student should act on the rules and regulations of the school. / 每个学生都应该遵守学校的规章制度。
  6. add to / add up to 加上/ 总计达 eg. The number of the patients added up to thre
 

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