特色: 推出一句话语法.一句话语法为语法之精要,在此基础上扩展就可以形成语法体系. 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句、并列句和复合句 一、句子成分 (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要 成分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句 (当主语不疑问词时) 和倒装句中, 主语位于谓语、 助动词或情态动词后面。 主语可由名词、 代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。一句话语法: 主语由名 词性的词来充当. 例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放 在主语之后。一句话语法: 谓语由动词充当. 有很多同学在写作的时候容易犯的错误就是要 么乱用 be 动词,要么句子没有谓语动词. 谓语的构成如下:
  1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:He practices running every morning.
  2、复合谓语: (
  1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。注意:这里面的动词原形非 常重要. 如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (
  2)由系动词加 表语构成。如:We are students. (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、 动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。一句话语法: 表语由名词性的或形容词性的构成, 不用副词! 练习一 一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:
  1. The students got on the school bus.
  2. He handed me the newspaper.
  3. I shall answer your question after class.
  4. What a beautiful Chinese painting!
  5. They went hunting together early in the morning.
  6. His job is to train swimmers.
  7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.
  8. There is going to be an American film tonight.
  9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.
  10. His wish is to become a scientist.
  11. He managed to finish the work in time.
  12. Tom came to ask me for advice.
  13. He found it important to master English.
  14. Do you have anything else to say?

  15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good.
  16. Would you please tell me your address?
  17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.
  18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
  19. He noticed a man enter the room.
  20. The apples tasted sweet. 二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语(?) 、谓语(=) 、宾语(~) : I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden. 三、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语( ( ) ) 、状语([ ]) 、补语(< >) : Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat ? too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents. 四、选择填空: ( )
  1. will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ( )
  2. The weather . A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ( )
  3. The apple tasted . A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet ( )
  4. He got up yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter ( )
  5. The actor at the age of
  70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. deaded ( )
  6. were all very tired, but none of would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we ( )
  7. He found the street much . A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly ( )
  8.I think necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is ( )
  9. The dog mad.
A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked ( )
  10.I will never forget the day I joined the army. A. that B. when C. in which D. where 前三题做不做都可以 第四题答案: 1-5 CBDBB 6-10 ACBAB 大家重点做一下第四题,有些题目比较难(当然是相对于我们刚复习的语法而言,比如第一题 是定语从句,这个我们还没有复习到,所以做不好也是正常的),做完题之后,回过头来再看一下 一句话语法是不是很有用.
 

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