Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank.and mark[A], [B],[C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) In 1924 American National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting __1__ workers productivity. Instead,the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect” the extremely influential idea the very__3__to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plant.According to __5__of the experiments their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the experiment. __7__something was changed productivity rose . A(n) __8__ that they were being experimented upon seemed to be __9__to alter workers' behavior __10__ itself After several decades, same data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne the experiments has another surprise store 12 the descriptions on record,no systematic __13__was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happened.__15__,lighting was always changed on a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ ,a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers __19__to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case,before __20__a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down
  1.[A] affected
  2. [A]at
  3. [A]truth [B]achieved [B]up [B]sight [C]extracted [C]with [C]act [C]accounts [C]indicate [C]in case that [C]sentiment [C]enough [C]on [B]perplexing [B]explanations [B]matter [B]for fear that [B]excessive [B]for [D]restored [D]off [D]proof [C]mischievous [D]ambiguous [D]assessments [D]work [D]illusion [D]abundant [D]by

  4. [A]controversial
  5. [A]requirements
  6. [A]conclude
  7. [A]as far as
  9. [A]suitable
  10. [A]about
[D]so long as

  8. [A]awareness [B]expectation

  11. [A]compared [B]shown
  12. [A]contrary to
  15.[A]In contrast
  16. [A]duly
  18. [A] Therefore
  19. [A]attempted
  20.[A]breaking [B]guidance
[C]subjected [C]implication [C]reliable [C]unpredictably [C]started [C]However [C]chose [C]surpassing
[D]conveyed [D]peculiar to [D]source [D]misleading [D]As usual [D]suddenly [D]continued [D]Meanwhile [D]intended
[B]consistent with
[C]parallel with

  14.[A]disputable [B]enlightening [B]accidentally [B]ceased [B]Furthermore [B] tended [B]climbing
[B]For example
[C]In consequence
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Text 1 Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most bit-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies. We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War 2,at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornamentto the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days,it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the eventsthey covered. Theirs was a serous business. and even those reviews who wore theirlearning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted toknow what they were aout. These men believed in journalism as a calling , and wereproud to be published in the daily press. 'So few authors have brains enough orliterary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,' Newman wrote, "that Iam tempted to define "journalism"as "a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are".' Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely
as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England's foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (19
  47) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and music is unknown save to specialists. Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodernreaders have little use for the richly uphostered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
  21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that A arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers. B English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews. C high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers. D young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.
  22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War 2 were characterized by A free themes. B casual style. C elaborate layout. D radical viewpoints.
  23. Which of the following would shaw and Newman most probably agree on? A It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals. B It is contemptible for writers to be journalists. C Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism. D Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
  24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs? A His music criticism may not appeal to readers today. B His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute. C His style caters largely to modern specialists. D His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
  25. What would be the best title for the text? A Newspapers of the Good Old Days B The Lost Horizon in Newspapers C Mournful Decline of Journalism D Prominent Critics in Memory Text 2
his vast body of writings on
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have seen granted for what are called business methods.Amazon com received one for its“one-click”online payment system Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One inventor patented a technique for lying a box。 Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale hack on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very big deal”, says Dermis'D, Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law.It “has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents” Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pints to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。 The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling。 The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme. Count that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reaction to the anti-patent trend at the supreme court” says Harole C Wegner, a par tend attorney and professor at Washington University Law School。
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to business allocation
[B] their connection with asset
[C] the possible restriction on their granting [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions transaction [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit in the U.S。
[D] the controversy over authorization [B] It involves a very big business [D] It may change the legal practices

  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?

  28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Paro
  3)most probably means [A] loss of good will [C]change of attitude [B]increase of hostility [D] enhancement of disunity [B] are of ten unnecessarily issued [D] increase the incidence of risks

  29.We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents [A] are immune to legal challenges [C] lower the esteem for patent holders [A]A looming threat to business-method patents [B]Protection for business-method patent holders [C]A legal case regarding business-method patents [D] A prevailing tread against business-method patents Text 3 In his book The Tipping Point Malcolm Aladuell argues that social epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials who are unusual informed, persuasive, or we connect. The idea is intuitively compelling but it doesn't explain how ideas actually spread。 The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested theory called the "tow-step flow of communication". Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow became it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of people was wearing, promoting or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people call drive trends。 In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact , they don’t seem to be required of all. The researchers' argument stems from a simple observation about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal influence-even the most

  30.Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrating influentials who according to the two-step-flow theory are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur however each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs and so on and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial influential, prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people。 Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be。
  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point the author intends to [A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics [B] discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas [C] exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials
  32. The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory” [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems [B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends



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