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Passage Twenty-one (The Result of the Falling US Dollar)
Like a ticking time bomb, the falling dollar has grabbed the attention of Japan and West Germany, forcing them to consider adopting economic polices the United States advocates. The U.S. government wants the dollar to fall because as the dollar declines in value against the yen and Deutsche mark, U.S. good becomes cheaper. U.S. companies then sell more at home and abroad, and U.S. trade deficit declines. Cries for trade protection abate, and the global free-trade system is preserved.
Then, the cheaper dollar makes it cheaper for many foreign investors to snap up U.S. stocks. That prompts heavy buying from abroad?especially from Japan. Also, if the trade picture is improving, that means U.S. companies eventually will be more competitive. Consequently, many investors are buying shares of export-oriented U.S. companies in anticipation of better profits in the next year or so. But that is a rather faddish notion right now; if corporate earnings are disappointing in interest rates, the stock market rally could stall.
Improving U.S. competitiveness means a decline in another’s competitiveness.
Japan and West Germany are verging on recession. Their export-oriented economies are facing major problems. Japan is worried about the damage the strong yen will do to Japanese trade. West Germany is also worried. Share prices in Frankfurt plummeted this past week. Bonn is thought to be considering a cut in interest rates to boost its economy.
Could the falling dollar get out of hand? If the dollar falls too far, investors might lose confidence in U.S. investments?especially the government bond market. The money to finance the federal budget and trade deficits could migrate elsewhere. Inflation could flare up, too, since Japanese and German manufacturers will eventually pass along price hikes?and U.S. companies might follow suit to increase their profit margins. The U.S. federal Reserve then might need to step in and stabilize the dollar by raising interest rates. And higher interest rates could cause the U.S. economy to slow down and end the Wall Street Rally.
Worried about these side effects, Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcher has said the dollar has fallen far enough. What is the equilibrium level? Probably near where it is or slightly lower. It all depends on when the U.S. trade deficit turns around or if investors defect from U.S. Treasury Bonds. “It requires a good deal of political patience on the part of
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the U.S. Congress,” says Dr. Cline, “And there must be an expectation of patience on the part of private investors. The chance are relatively good that we will avoid an investor break or panic.”

  1. What is the main idea of this passage?
[A]. The impression of the falling U.S. dollar.
[B]. The result of the U.S. falling dollar.
[C]. The side effect of U.S. falling dollar.
[D]. Japan and West Germany are worried about U.S. falling dollar.

  2. What does the word “rally” mean.
[A]. prosperity. [B]. decline. [C]. richness. [D]. import.

  3. Why are Japan and West Germany worried about the falling dollar?
[A]. Because the falling dollar may cause inflation in their countries.
[B]. Because it may force them to sell a lot of U.S, stocks.
[C]. Because it may do damage to their trade.
[D]. Because it may make Japanese company less competitive.

  4. If dollar-falling got out of hand, and the U.S. Federal Reserve might step in , what would happen?
[A]. The prosperity of the U.S. economy would disappear.
[B]. The U.S. economy might face serious problems.
[C]. Investors might lose confidence in U.S. investments.
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[D].Inflation could flare up.
Vocabulary

  1. ticking 滴答作响的

  2. grab 抓住

  3. abate 减弱

  4. snap up 争购,抢购

  5. heavy buying 大量买进

  6. export-oriented 以出口为方向的

  7. in anticipation of 期待,预期

  8. faddish 一时流行的

  9. spree 无节制的疯狂行为

  10. buying spree 狂购乱买

  11. plummet 垂直落下,骤然跌落,暴跌

  12. stall 停滞

  13. verge 处于……边缘

  14. verging on recession 正处于衰退的边缘

  15. boost 振兴,吹捧

  16. bond market 债券市场
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  17. flare up 突然闪耀,发火,爆发

  18. hike 提高,增加

  19. follow suit 照着做,跟出同花色的牌

  20. profit margin 利润幅度

  21. step in 介入

  22. rally 繁荣

  23. equilibrium 平衡,均势

  24. defect 逃跑,开小差

  25. break or panic 崩溃或大恐慌
[NextPage]
难句译注

  1. cries for trade protection 贸易保护的呼声

  2. the global free-trade system 全球自由贸易体系

  3. that is a rather faddish notion right now 只是一时流行的概念

  4. get out of hand 失控

  5. What is the equilibrium level? Probably near where it is or slightly lower. 什么是平衡水平?可能是接近现在水 平或者稍低一些。

  6. trade deficit 贸易赤字,贸易逆差。
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写作方法与文章大意
这是一篇论述“美元下跌的后果”的文章,采用对比,顺序,因果等写作。先提出问题:美元下跌,美国得利 有二:一是(第一段)商品便宜,销售量大,赤字下降,全球自由贸易体系保住。二是(第二段)外国投资者会抢购美 国股票。总之,美国竞争力加强。
这两段中都有对比。第一段美国和日本的对比,开头“就像滴答作响的定时炸弹,日见下跌的美元抓住了日本 和西德的注意力,迫使他们考虑采取美国提出的经济政策。“第二段是美国本身之利弊对比。“……许多外国投资 者抢购出口导向的美国股票,期望在下一年左右的时间里得到较多的利润。如果公司收益在今后几个季度里令人 失望的话,这种买进古片的狂热行为就可能消失。最后,如果美元价格直线下跌导致利率上升,股票市场价格回 升就会停顿。“ 后面两段是这两段负效应的进一步论证。
答案祥解

  1. B. 美元下跌的结果。全篇文章都讲的美元下跌的后果。
A. 美元下跌的印象。 C. 美元下跌的副作用,均不对。 因为还讲述了有利的一面。 D. 日本的、西德担忧 美元下跌,这只是其中的部分内容。

  2. A. 繁荣。第五段“美元下跌是否会失控:如果美元下跌过多,投资者可能会失去对美国投资的信心,特别 是对美国的债务市场。对联邦政府预算和贸易赤字提供的资金可能移向其它市场,因为日本和西德厂商最终会将 上涨的价格转嫁出去,美国公司也可能这么做,以提高其市场利润幅度,从而使通货膨胀再次爆发。美国联邦储 备委员会这时可能需要介入,提高利率来稳定美元。而较高利率会导致美国经济减慢,华尔街的繁荣行将结束。”
B. 衰退。 C. 富有。 D. 出口,都不是 rally 之含义。

  3. C. 因为下跌对他们贸易有损害。第三段“改善美国竞争力意味着其他国家的竞争力下降。”第四段,“日本 和西德正濒于经济衰退的边缘。其出口导向的经济正在面临严重问题。日本担心由于日元坚挺而给其贸易带来损 害,西德也在发愁。上个星期,法兰克福股市价格暴跌。据说,波恩已在考虑降低利率以振兴其经济。
A. 美元下跌会使他们国家通货膨胀。没有正式提到, 内涵只是贸易带来的其他具体问题。 B. 它可能迫使他 们卖掉许多美国股票。 D. 这可能使日本竞争力下降。问题是提出两国,不单单是日本。
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  4. A. 美国经济繁荣消失,见第 2 题答案 A 的注释。
B. 美国经济可能面临严重问题。太笼统。 C. 投资者可能对在美国投资失去信心。这不是美国联邦储备委员 会介入后发生之事。 D. 通货膨胀全面爆发。这也是介入之后果。
Passage Twenty-two (Pantomime)
Pantomimes like pageants, need to be very well planned, and it is essential that initial organization should begin many weeks in advance of the production date. Pantomimes are nearly always divided into separate scenes, very often taking place in different countries or even in different centuries. It is therefore necessary that there should be an overall unity of design culminating in the grand finale. This latter is really just an excuse for visual effects, and for once the performers become merely cloths hangers on which to put elaborate garments.
The scene should be discussed at some length with the producer so that the background, which is decided upon, does not present impossibilities for the provision of costumes within the budget or insuperable making problems for the wardrobe. Because of the large numbers of costumes needed full use must be made of the cheapest materials available, such as tarlatan (thin, stiff, open-weave muslin) nets and inexpensive cottons and taffetas. Very often it is possible to pick up goods that have been substantially reduced in price as cheap lines either in the big stores or on stalls in street markets.
Costumes for pantomimes need to be imaginative, gay and fairly bold in conception?this does not mean that they need to be garish. Usually in one scene there needs to be the flavor of what is newest at the moment in clothes. It is always a good idea to make use of a modern gimmick and to point it in some way if this can be conveniently fitted into the scheme. The audience comes to pantomime to have the eye feasted as much as for any other purpose, thus making a great chance for the designer to excel. Because of the very varied audience to be catered for there must be costumes to please patrons of all ages and delight the eyes of toddlers, teenagers, parents and grandparents.
Usually there is the chance for some country scene involving merry-making peasants in ginghams, stripes of chintzes. There may be a military or naval routine or some number emphasizing precision and calling for trim slick costumes.
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There is certain to be a ballet which is to look fairy-like or romantic and pretty and which may well need either classical or romantic tutus. The finale, which must be the most spectacular of all, is often set in a ballroom or palace where all the characters come together to make their final bows; and it is for this scene that the glitter of sequins and jewels, the sparkle of tinsel, the gold and silver materials and the waving plumes should be saved.
It may be helpful to examine the different characters and the various scenes in which they are likely to appear. They remain much the same in all pantomimes; the flavor varying according to the setting?so that a s\dash of the Orient, or the particular feeling of a historical epoch is added to the standard costume.

  1. Which word can best describe the final scene in pantomime?
[A]. Spectacular. [B]. Beautiful. [C]. Romantic. [D]. Sparkling.

  2. What is the best title for this passage?
[A]. How to Gain Success of a Pantomime.
[B]. The Most Important Factors in a Pantomime.
[C]. Pantomime needs to have a very-well.
[D]. How to Make Preparation for a Pantomime.

  3. What does paragraph two imply?
[A]. It implies actor and actress outnumber costume.
[B]. It implies costume costs too much.
[C]. It implies the funds available is on meager side.
[D]. It implies a good plan is necessary for a pantomime.

  4. The success of a pantomime lie in
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