名词性从句
由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句.名词性从句在复合句中起名词的作用, 它包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句四大类,在句中分别用作主语,宾语,表语和同 位语.
一,
引导名词性从句的关联词
A.that 连词 that 本身没有意义,在从句中不担任任何句子成分,在宾语从句中有时可省略. I hear (that) he has joined the football club. 我听说他已经加入了足球俱乐部. That light travels in straight line is known to all. 众所周知,光是以直线传播的. It so happens that I know the man. 碰巧我认识那个. Is it certain that they will win 他们一定会赢吗
B.whether 和 if 连词 whether 和 if 本身有意义(解释是否) ,在从句中不可省略.
  1.whether 可以连接所有的名词性从句,而 if 只能引导宾语从句. I didn't know whether he would attend the concert. 我并不知道他是否参加音乐会. (宾语从句,可用 if 代替 whether) The question is whether it s worth trying. 问题是值不值得试一试. (表语从句, 不可用 if 代替 whether) Whether she comes or not makes no difference. 她来不来都没有关系. (主语从句,不可用 if 代替 whether) He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问题. (同位语从句,不可用 if 代替 whether)
  2.whether 引导的宾语从句可作介的宾语,而 if 则不能. It all depends on whether they will support us. 这完全取决于他们是否支持我们.(不用 if) Ryan was worrying about whether he had hurt her feelings. 瑞恩担心是否伤害了她的感情.
  3.if 既可引导语从句,也可引导宾语从句.如果用 if 会引起歧义,应避免使用 if,而用 whether. Please let me know if you want to join us. 请告诉我你是否想加入我们. 引导的从句可被看成是宾 (if 语从句,if 表示是否) Please let me know if you want to join us. 如果你想加入我们的话,请告诉我一声. 引导的从句可 (if 被看成是条件状语从句,if 表示如果) Please let me know whether you want t join us. 请告诉我你是否想加入我们. (为避免引起歧义,可用
whether 表示是否)
C.who, whom, whose, what, which 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which 等在从句中既起连接作用,同时又担当主语,宾语,定语, 表语等成分. No one knows who he was waiting for. 没人知道他当时在等谁. We are worrying about what we should do next. 我们正在为下一步该怎么办而烦恼. Tell me whos house it is. 告诉我这是谁的家. Let me know which train you will be arriving on. 告诉我你将乘哪列火车到达. D.where, when, how, why 连接副词 where, when, how, why 等在从句中既是连接词,又作状语. I don't know where we are going to have the meeting.我不知道我们将在哪儿开会. She always thinks of how shecan work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好. What I am anxious to know is when we can visit the museum. 我急于知道我们什么时候能参观博物 馆. 比较: when 引导的时间状语从句和名词性从句中的不同时态. Please lt me know when you arrive. 你到的时候,请告诉我一声. (when 引导的是时间状语从句,从 句中用一般现在时来表示将来. ) Please let me know when you will arrive. 请告诉我你什么时候到. (when 引导的是宾语从句,从句中 用一般将来时. )
E.whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever, whosever 连接代词 whoever = anyone who 任何人, 无论谁;whatever =anything that 凡是...,无论什么; whichever = anything that 无论那一个, 任何一个;whomever = anyone whom (whoever 的宾格形式) . Whoever comes to the club is welcome. 不论谁来参加这个俱乐部都欢迎. Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well.凡是值得做的就值得做好. They ate whatever they could find o the deserted island. 他们在荒岛找到什么就吃什么. You may do whatever you will. 你可做任何你想做的事. I'll take whichever book interests me.我愿买任何让我感兴趣的书. Whosever book is overdue will be fined. 不管谁的书过期未还都要被罚款. 比较: 连接代词 whoever 在宾语从句中作主语,whomever 作宾语从句中宾语. You may offer he book to whoever wants it. 你可把这本书给任何想要的人. (此句中不能使用
whomever,因为 whoever 在宾语从句中作 wants it 的主语) You may offer the book to whomever you like.你可把这本书给任何你喜欢的人. (whomever 在宾语从 句中作 you like 的宾语)
二,
表语从句
表语从句放在连系动词之后,充当复合句中的表语.
A.可接表语从句的连系动词 可接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, seem, sound, appear 等. China is no longer what she used to be. 今日的中国不再是过去的中国了. The question remains whether they will be able to help us. 问题还是他们能否帮我们. Itappears that he has a taste for music.看来他对音乐有一定的鉴赏力. At that time, it seemed as if I couldn' 个恰当的字眼来. t think of the right word anyhow. 当时,我似乎怎么也想不出一
B.as, as ifthough 引导的表语从句 He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样. It sounds as ifsomeone is knocking at the door. 听起来好像有人在敲门.
C.because, why 引导的表语从句 I think it is because you are talking too much. 我想这是因为你话说得太多. That's because he didn't understand me. 那是因为他没有理解我. (That's because 强调原因) That's why he got angry with me. 那正是他对我生气的原因. (Tha's why 强调结果) 注意 what 引导的主语从句表示结果或名词 reason 作主语时,后面的表语从句表示原因时要用 that 引导, 一般不宜用 because. The reason why I was sad was that he didn't understand me. 我难过的原因是他没有理解我. What cost him his life was that he was too careless. 使他丧命的原因是他太粗心了.
D.使用虚拟语气的表语从句 在表示建议,劝告,命令含义的名词后的表语从句,谓语动词需用 should+动词原形表示,should 可省略.常见的词有:advice, suggestion, order, proposal, insistence, plan, idea 等. My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天一早就出发.
His proposal was that they (should ) challenge the other classes to afriendly competition. 他的提议是挑 战别的班级进行一场友谊竞赛. 四,宾语从句 在复合句中用作动词宾语或介词宾语的从句叫宾语从句.
A. 作动词宾语 He told us(that)he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服.
Do you know whose dictionary it is 你知道这是谁的字典? He has informed me when they are to discuss the work plan. 他已经通知我他们将什么时候讨论工作计 划 Give a reading list to whoever comes. 注意: doubt(怀疑)的肯定句接 ifwhether 引导的宾语从句,但否定句和疑问句接 that 引导的宾语从句. I doubt whether if he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功. I do not doubt that he can recite the poem. 我相信他能把这首诗背下来. Do you doubt that he will win 你不相信会获胜吗 给所有来的人一份阅读书目.
B.作介词的宾语 He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day. 他对那天发生的事感到很不快. I am curious as to what he will say. 我很想知道他要说什么. Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it. 你是否成功将主要取决于你做 什么和怎样做. They were praised or criticizd according to how they had done their work. 他们受表扬还是受批评是根 据他们工作好坏而定. He goes to the library every day except when it is raining. 除了天下雨外,他每天都去图书馆. 注意: that 引导的宾语从句只用在少数介词后,如:except, in, but 等.此时,that 不能省略. I know little about him except that he lives downstais. 我对他知之甚少,只知道他住在楼下. He differed from his classmates in that he devoted his spare time to reading. 他和他的同学们不同的地 方在于他把业余时间用在阅读上.
C. 作形容词的宾语 I am not sure what I ought to do. 我不能确定我该做什么. I'm afraid (that) you don't understand what I said. 恐怕你没领会我说的意思.
I'm suprised (that) I didn't see all that before. 我好奇怪,我以前没见过那一切. D. 用 it 作形式宾语的情况
  1.和 it 作形式主语一样,我们常用 it 来作形式宾语,把真正的宾语从句放在句末,这种情况尤其 出现在带复合宾语的句子中. We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday. 我们认为小王昨天没来是奇怪的. He has made it clear that he will not give n. 他已表明他不会屈服.
  2.由于 that 引导的宾语从句一般不可以直接作介词的宾语,因此当介词后面需要用 that 从句作宾 语时,必须使用 it 作形式宾语. You may depend on it that I shall always support you. 你可以放心我会永远支持你的. I'll see to it that your problem will be dealt with immediately. 我保证你的问题会立即得到处理的.
  3. take, hide, see to, insit on, depend on 等动词以及一些表示爱好的动词 在 (enjoy, hate, like, love, don't mind, resent 等)之后,形式宾语 it 可直接跟宾语从句. I take it that he's not interested in the book. 我猜想他对这本书不感兴趣. She hid it that she was married. 她隐瞒了她已婚的事实. I don't like it when you look at me like that! 我不喜欢那样看我.
  4. it 不能作由连接代词 whoever, whomever, whosever, whatever, whichever 引导的宾语从句的形式宾 语. You may do whatever you will. 你可做任何你想做的事.
I'll take whichever book interests me.我愿买任何让我感兴趣的书. We are ready to offer help to whoever needs it. 我们乐意帮助任何需要帮助的人.
E.宾语从句的语序 和其他词性从句一样,宾语从句必须使用陈述语序,不能用疑问语序. How can I get to the station Can you tell me →Can you tell me how I can get to the station 你能告诉我怎样去车站吗? What does he like I wonder →I wonder what he likes. 我想知道他喜欢什么. Where were you born He asked→He asked me where I was born. 他问我出生的地方. 比较: He asked me what was the matter. 他问我出了什么事.(the matter = wrong) He asked me what the matter was. 他问我那是什么物质.
F.宾语从句中的时态
  1.在一般情况下,宾语从句中时态要和主句相一致,尤其是主句为过去时态时.
He said that he had lived in Beijing since liberatin. 他说自解放以来他一直住在北京. He made it quite clear that he preferred to learn English. 他明确地说他更喜欢学英语.
  2.有时,宾语从句中时态也可以和主句不一致. You can't imagine how they were excited when they won the first place in the game.你无法想象他们获得 比赛第一名时是多么的兴奋. Can you make sure where you have pu the gold ring 你能确定你把金戒指放哪儿了吗?
  3.客观真理和自然规律的内容在宾语从句中时态保持不变. Mike asked whether the earth moves around the sun. 迈克问地球是否绕着太阳转. Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证明了地球是圆的.
G.关于 that 的省略 一般情况下,宾语从句中的 that 是可以省略的.但在下列几种情况下,that 一般不可省略.

  1.介词后面的 that 不能省. Pter is a good student except that he is sometimes careless.彼得是好学生,只是有时粗心.
  2.并列连词 and 连接两个或两个以上宾语从句,and 前面的 that 可以省略, and 的后面的 that 不 能省略. Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened. 大家都会看出所发生的事情并知道 Tom 非常害怕. My uncle says (that) he has servd here for twenty years and that he is going to retire next month. 我叔叔 说他在这儿工作已二十年了,下个月即将退休.
  3.that 引导的宾语从句位于句首时,that 不可省略. That he ever said such a thing I simply don't believe. 我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话.
  4.主句谓语动词与 that 从句之间有插入语,that 不可省略. He said that, if he could manag it, he would come for dinner. 他说,如果他安排得好的话,他会来吃晚 饭的.
  5.宾语从句中有其他从属连词时,that 不能省略. He told me that if it was necessary they would work all night. 他告诉我,如果需要的话,他们就干个通 宵. H.宾语从句的否定转移 在 think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, fancy 等动词后的宾语从句,如有否定意思,一般要把否 定词前移到主句的语上,从句的谓语用肯定的形式. I don't think he can do it better than me. 我想他不会干得比我好. I don't believe they have finished their work yet. 我相信他们还未完成他们的工作.
I don't suppose he cares, does he 我想他不会在意的,是吗? 提示: 在下列情况下,宾语从句不否定转移:
  1.think 等词前有副词和表示强调的 do I really expect he wont fail the examination. 我真希望他不会不通过考试. I do think that he is not fair. 我确实认为他是不公正的.
  2.think 等词和其他词构成并列谓语 I thin
 

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