?2010年高考英语 年高考英语 ?复习精讲精练课件 复习精讲精练课件
名词性从句
主语从句
宾语从句
表语从句
同位语从句
主语从句在句中做 主语 表语从句在句中做 表语
  1. That he will come is certain.
主语从句
宾语从句在句中做 宾语 同位语从句在句中 同位语

  2. I know that he will come.
宾语从句

  3. The truth is that I have been there.
表语从句

  4. The fact that she was late surprised us.
同位语从句

  1. 为什么叫名词性从句?
整个从句相当于一个名词
名词能做的成分,从句都能 做

  2. 为什么要有名词性从句? 从句表达的意思比名词复杂得多 比较: The man looked around. 那人看了看四周. (名词作主语) That the boy failed again in the exam disappointed his mother.
那孩子考试又不及格令他母亲很失望.
(从句作主语) 同样作主语,从句可以表示较复杂的含义,一般是个动作或性质
I know him. I know that he is writing his composition in his room 我知道他在房间里写作文. 从句的特征: 是一个句子,有一个引导词,引导词做从句的一个成分 (that 除外)
主语从句 位于句首
从 句 that whether who whom whose 引导词: what which when where why how

  1. That he knows Japanese is known to all. That无词义 不可省略 无词义,不可省略 无词义 他懂英语,这一点大家都知道
  2. What surprised me was to see him here . What “什么”, “所….
  3. When he will come is unknown . 的”
令我惊讶的是在这儿见到他.
他什么时候来不清楚.
Details Details Details Details
When “什么时候”
  4. Whether he is coming doesn’t matter much. 主语从句不用 主语从句不用 if
  5. It remains a secret how they climbed up the mountain. 他们是怎么登上山顶的仍是个秘密.
他来不来没什么要紧的
主语太长了!放到句尾
主语从句的位置
  1.在句首
  2.主语较长时通常放在后面,句首主语用 It
It 作主语的常用句型有:
  1. It + be +形容词 + that 从句
  2. It + be +名称词组(duty/pity..) + that 从句
  3. It + be + 过去分词(said/thought..) + that 从句
  4. It +不及物动词(seem/happen..) + that 从句

  1.
  2.
  3.
  4. 真可惜我们不能去游泳.
It is a pity that we can’t go swimming.
碰巧那天我外出了.
It happened that I was out that day.
他考试肯定会考好.
happen只有 it 句型
It is certain that he will do well in the exam.
据说他已告诉了她一切.
It is said that he told her everything.
It is said只有 it 句型 More
注意: It looked that he was right. ( × ) 可以说: It looks as if….
用形式主语 it 的主语从句常见结构
  1. It is clear (necessary, important, possible,remarkable that… 很清楚(必要, 重要,可能, 值得注意等)…
  2. It is a fact (a good thing, good news…) that … 事实是 ( 好事是,好消息是…)…
  3. It is well-known ( reported, recorded, estimated,said, believed) that…众所周知( 据报道,,据记载,据说,据估
  4. 计)… out ( seems, happens, appears…) that… 结果 It turns 是 ( 似乎是, 碰巧是, 好象是…)…
  5. It has been found (has been proved,can be seen,must be pointed out) that …已发现( 已证明,可以看出,需指 出)…
用 it 句型翻译:

  1. 据说今年高一学生要学新教材.
→ It is said that the Senior Grade one students will learn a new text
  2. 事实是他们靠自己完成了所有的任务. this year. → It is a fact that they finished all the work by themselves. √

  3.
  4.
  5. 碰巧他们已经参加过军训了. 众所周知, 比尔 ? 盖茨是世界上最富有的人. 我们应该养成好的学习习惯这很重要.
→ It happened that they had had their military training. → It is well-known that Bill Gates is the richest person in the world. → It is important that we (should) form a good habit of studying. √ Note: It is important/necessary/natural/our duty/essential/strange that sb (should) do sth. 固定句型, should可以省略 翻译: 真奇怪他今天竟然迟到了. It is strange that he should be late today. strange不省略should为好
表语从句
系动词后面
  1. The truth is that he has never been to the countryside. 实际情况是他从未去过农村. that 一般不省略
  2. The question is whether w can finish the experiment by Friday. 问题在于我们能否在明天下午之前完成这项实验. 表语从句不用 if
  3. It looks as if it were going to rain.
好象看上去要下雨似的. (其实不会)
从 句 同主语从句 (11个), 外加as if / 引导词: as though,
as if /as though从句常表示 不真实的情况
又比如:
She talks as if /as though she had been there before . 她说话的口气好象以前去过那儿似的.

  4. This school is no longer what it was before.
这所学校已不再是从前的那个样子了. what =the thing that
More
注意下列表语从句中where, how, why 的译法
  1. This is where Lu Xun once lived. 固定句型: This is where…
这就是鲁迅曾经住过的地方. 这就是…的地方 This is why …
  2. That was how they won the match. 这就是…的原因 他们就是这样赢得这场比赛的. This is how….
  3. This is why she got up so early this morning. 这就是…的方法 这就是她为什么今天早上起得这么早的原因. .

  1. 我们就是这样克服困难的.
This is / That was how we overcame the difficulties.

  2. 那就是他昨天缺席的原因.
That is why he was absent yesterday.

  3. 这就是我们上星期碰头的地方.
This is where we met last Sunday.
This is 总是现在时 That is 表示性质 That was 指过去动作
宾语从句
宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况下不 宾语从句中的连接词 在以下三种情况下不 能省略: 能省略: ? (
  1)当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作 ) 宾语时,第二个that不能省 不能省; 宾语时,第二个that不能省; ? (
  2)当that作介词宾语时,that不可省掉。 作介词宾语时, 不可省掉。 ) 作介词宾语时 不可省掉 ? (
  3)用it做形式宾语的宾语从句 ) 做形式宾语的宾语从句 ? Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. ? The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.
whether与if的辨用 与 的辨用
? 表“是否”时,在下列情况下用whether。
? a. 主语从句 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f.后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g .whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从 句时不用if 句时不用

  2.注意 whether和if的使用区别 注意 和 的使用区别

  1).whether和if都可以引导宾语从句 和 都可以引导宾语从句 a..当whether后紧跟 not时,不用 当 后紧跟or 时 不用if. 后紧跟 不用 eg: I don’t know whether or not I will stay. b.介词后面的宾语从句不能用if. 介词后面的宾语从句不能用 介词后面的宾语从句不能用 eg: I worry about whether I hurt her feeling.
Practice time
if / whether if / whether
  1. I asked her she had a bike. whether
  3. We’re worried about he is safe. whether /if he is well
  4. I don’t know or not. whether
  5. I don’t know or not he is well. whether
  8. I don’t know to go.
doubt问题
  1. I doubt if / whether he will pass the exam.
  2. I don’t doubt that we will win the match.
  3. Do you doubt that he did it on his own? 肯定句中用 if / whether 否定句中用 that 疑定句中用 that

  1. I doubt if / whether is telling the truth. he that
  2. We never doubt the plan will be carried out . that
  3. Does he doubt you are from Austria?
  4. I’m doubtful if / whether he will agree to this.
宾语从句经常做介词的宾语
that 从句只跟在 except,but, in ,besides, save五个介词后面

  1. The Swede stood still, except his lips moved slightly. that
  2. She is not satisfied with what she has achieved. how
  3. Mary always thinks of she can do more for the class.
  4. He wrote a letter of thanks to whoever helped him. (任何一个)
  5. It depends on if we have enough time. time. whether we have enough what you have done?
  6. Are you sorry for whichyou have done? 宾语从句经常作表语形容词的宾语
  1. I’m afraid (that ) I’ll be late. 我恐怕要迟到了. that 可以省略
  2. We were surprised that he lost the game.
我们对他在比赛中的失败感到惊异.
介词后面不用 if
介词后面不用 which
M
此类表语形容词有: afraid pleased happy satisfied anxious sure surprised certain glad aware用它们造句
We consider her suitable for the job.
宾语 宾补
I consider that we should learn English well
necessary.
it不能漏 I consider it necessary that we should learn English well consider find think feel make 等动词常带宾语补足 语,这时要用形式宾语 it ,宾语从句放到宾补之后
我认为学好英 语是必要的.

  1. We think that middle school students master one foreign language possible . (改用形式宾语 it ) We think it possible that middle school students master one foreign language.
  2. We have made that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life clear. (改用形式宾语 it ) We have made it clear that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life. . More
correction
which不做介词宾语

  1. The emperor was pleased by which the minister told him about it. what
that不做介词宾语
  2. Are you sorry for that you have annoyed him? it this should be kept secret for the secret for the time
  3. I find thatnecessary that this should be kept time being necessary. being
  4. Can you doubt if she will succeed? ? that she will succeed

  5. I worried about if my brother brother willin time.in time. whether my will return return
  6. She said that she had never told a lie. has will leave for Paris?
  7. Will you tell me when he leaves for Paris?
从句缺少引导词

  8. That our football team won the match last Sunday excited of us. us Our football team won the match last Sunday excited all all of seemed
  9. ItIt looked that he was well prepared for the unexpected challenge.
  10.What he said moved everyone present. 没有It look that…表达式 That that不做句子成分
同位语从句
同位语从句说 明它们的内容
被修饰词有: fact, news, hope, opinion, order, question, problem, belief, truth, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, promise, rumor, fear, thought, suggestion, plan, idea…
常见引导词: that , whether ( if ), how, wh- 疑问词
  1. The fact that deeds are better than words is quite clear.
事实胜于雄辨这一道理非常清楚.

  2. The question how I did it is hard to answer.
我怎么做的这一问题难回答.
that 无词义

  3. They had no idea where they should go to find some food.
他们根本不知去哪儿找食物

  4. The question whether he comes or not is not important. ( if )
他是否 是否来这个问题不重要. 是否

  5. A thought came to me that he might be in the library.
我突然想到他可能在图书馆.
被别的词隔开

  1.Two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet./ The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot. The fact that two thirds of all girls are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot.
  2.The Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China./ the news We heard last night. We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China.

  3.Teenagers should not spend too much time online./ Many British parents hold the view. Many British parents hold the view that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online.
  4.Time travel is possible./ There is no scientific proof for the idea. There is no scientific proof for the idea that time travel is possible.

  5.Chinese students should be given more free time./ The suggestion is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school. The suggestion that Chinese students should be given more free time is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.
一、同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处

  1、两种从句都可以译成定语 、 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match
is encouraging. (同位语从句) 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞 消息令人鼓舞。 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。 The news that you told us is really encouraging. (定语从句)你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。

  2、两种从句都可以用that引导 、两种从句都可以用 引导 e.g.
The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. 同位语从句) (同位语从句) 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑 建议值得考虑。 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。 The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical. 定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学 (定语从句)值
 

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