2010 年高考英语知识点+考点+题型+演练(13 )
一、语言知识点:

  1. lack+ wisdom/money be lacking in+courage lack for nothing for lack of:因缺乏… have no lack of:不缺乏… a/the lack of:…的缺乏
  2. persuade sb to do=persuade sb into doing sth persuade sb not to do=persuade sb out of doing sb to do=urge sb into doing:强烈要求某人干某事 urge sth on sb:对某人强调某事 that-clause+(should) do:强烈要求…
  3. on the contrary be contrary to… on the other hand
  4. in case+从句 in case of+短语 in this/that case in any case
  5. be content with:对…感到满足 =be satisfied/pleased with
[来源:Z§xx§k.Com] [来源:学+科+网]
be content to do…:满足于做… content (n.) :内容,目录
  6. at (the) sight of:一看见 at first sight:乍一见 catch/get/have (a) sight of:看见,发现 lose sight of:看不见
[来源:Zxxk.Com]
out of sight:在视线之外 in/within sight:在视线内
  7. live through:活过,经历…而未死
[来源:学,科,网]
live with:与…同住,接受并忍受某事 live on:以…为生
[来源:学。科。网 Z。X。X。K][来源:学科网]
live by+doing:以…为生
  8. knock about:到处漫游, (风浪)冲击(船只) knock into sb:撞上(某人) knock down:撞倒 knock over:撞翻 knock…off…:把…从…上撞下来
  9. what's up? =wha's the matter? =what's wrong? =what's happening?
  10. witness n.:目击者,证人,证据 vt.:目击,证明,为…作证 tip n.:小费,尖,尖端 vt.:使倾斜,倾倒,给…小费
  11. at hand:在近处,在手边,即将到来 near/close at hand:近在手边 on hand:手头上
[来源:学科网] [来源:Zxxk.Com]
in hand:在手中,在掌握中 by hand:用手工 at second hand:间接地,二手地 hand in hand :手拉手,关系密切地
  12. in harmony with:与…协调/和谐 leave out:省去,遗漏 leave…alone:不理会… be worn out:筋疲力尽
[来源:Z#xx#k.Com]
二、语法专题??特殊句式的考点 特殊句式包括有:倒装句、强调句、省略句、反意疑问句、主谓一致和情景交际。这些 句式都有其基本结构和一些特殊情况的用法。 所以对于这些句式重点要熟记这些用法, 并要 注重句意的理解。 三、题型归纳──阅读理解的解题要决──主旨大意题
  1. 根据文章第一段或首句确定文章的主旨。新闻报道的第一段一般首先概括全文的中 心, 另外有些说明性或议论性文章也会开门见山地提出文章的中心或阐述的观点, 文章的第 一句话或第一段就是对全文主旨大意的概括。 后文对此进一步解释说明, 一般上具体的事例 或信息,全文具有先总后分的特点。我们在捕捉文章的主题句时,应该对包含主题句的段落 进行适当的分析。 例:Fear and its companion pain are two of the most use ful things that men and animals possess if they are properly used. If fire didn't hurt when it burned, children would play with it until their hands were burned away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear didn't, a child could burn itself again and again because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burnt it before. A really fearless soldierand some do existis not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might soon die out.… Q: The best title for this passage should be. A. No pains, No Gains C. The Value of Fear B. Pain and Actions D. The Reason Why People Fear
[分析]文章的第一句话就开门见山点明了主题:如果利用得当,恐惧和痛苦是人和动物 拥有的两样最有价值的东西。后文就此展开论述,说明恐惧的价值。故答案为 C。
  2. 主题 句在篇尾。主题句位于段末的文章的特点是作者采用了先摆事实,后下结论的 写作手法。作者在表述细节后,归纳要点、结论、建议或结果,以概括主题。我们在做题时, 要判断所读内容是细节性的描述还是对所涉及问题的集中表达。 如果文章首先提及的内容多 为一般性的事实、细节的描写或具体的事例,则对文章 中心的归纳或作者观点及意图的体 现极有可能在最后, 可以重点细读最后一段, 然后回过头来利用主题句进一步理解文章的细 节。 例:…Free time increased considerably following the shortening of the working week, i.e. from six days to five days, and from ten hours to eight hours a day. In fact, the working day
couldn't be too long, otherwise people wouldn't have the time to spend their money. The amount of a family's budget spent on outside entertainment, such as parties, films and concerts has increased from just under 6% in Ford's day to about 9% today. On the other hand, we spend only a quarter of what our great-grandparents paid for reading materials.
[来源:学科网 ZXXK]
It is difficult to see how our spending patterns may c hange in the future. We already know that our population is aging and this will have an effect on the amount of money we spend on medical care. Q: What is the subject discussed in the text? A. Changing patterns in spending C. Decrease in food demand B. Changes in family planning
D. Increase in family income
[分析]结合前文所提及的细节可知,文章最后一段 的第一句话即全文讨论的主题──消 费方式的变化。故答案为 A。
[来源:学§科§网 Z§X§X§K]

  3. 主旨出现在文章的中间。在有些议论文或说明文中作者首先列举或说明人们的错误 观点或认识误区,然后再点明自己的观点或说明的中心,最后点题,这样文章的主题句就出 现在篇中。 例:A close friend siad: "If I could only figure this out, I think I could find happiness." I have heard this before and will hear it again I am sure. Many people believe that finding happiness is all about finding something else they want. Not many have ever found long term happiness by achieving another goal. The answer to finding happiness is to look within yourself. In other words, happiness is a completely inside job. The most important piece to finding happiness is to comprehend happiness is a choice and not the result of an experience. If all happiness could be found as the result of an acquisition(成就), meeting a goal, or having anything, then a person's happiness would always be subject to something else. Q: Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A. Look within to find happiness. B. Happiness, a choice or the result of an experie nce? C. The definition of happiness D. How can we create happiness? [分析]作者首先引用别人的观点,然后在材料的第二段点明主题:我们要从自己的内心
去寻找幸福。B 项表示不确定的两种观点,与作者意图不符;C 项仅仅是文章的细节;D 项 不是文章论述的中心。
[来源:学科网]
 

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