Passage 1 What we know of prenatal development makes all this attempt made by a mother to mold the character of her unborn child by studying poetry,art,or mathematics during pregnancy seem utterly impossible. How could such extremely complex influences pass from the mother to the child? There is no connection between their nervous systems. Even the blood vessels of mother and child do not join directly. An emotional shock to the mother will affect her child, because it changes the activity of her glands and so the chemistry her blood. Any chemical change in the mother's blood will affect the child for better or worse. But we can not see how a looking for mathematics or poetic genius can be dissolved in blood and produce a similar liking or genius in the child. In our discussion of instincts we saw that there was reason to believe that whatever we inherit must be of some very simple sort rather than any complicated or very definite kind of behavior. It is certain that no one inherits a knowledge of mathematics. It may be, however, that children inherit more or less of a rather general ability that we may call intelligence. If very intelligent children become deeply interested in mathematics, they will probably make a success of that study. As for musical ability, it may be that what is inherited is an especially sensitive ear, a peculiar structure of the hands or the vocal organs connections between nerves and muscles that make it comparatively easy to learn the movements a musician must execute, and particularly vigorous emotions. If these factors are all organized around music, the child may become a musician. The same factors, in other circumstance might be organized about some other center of interest. The rich emotional equipment might find expression in poetry. The capable fingers might develop skill in surgery. It is not the knowledge of music that is inherited, then nor even the love of it, but a certain bodily structure that makes it comparatively easy to acquire musical knowledge and skill. Whether that ability shall be directed toward music or some other undertaking may be decided entirely by forces in the environment in which a child grows up.
  1. Which of the following statements is not true? A. Some mothers try to influence their unborn children by studying art and other subjects during their pregnancy. B. It is utterly impossible for us to learn anything about prenatal development. C. The blood vessels of mother and child do not join directly. D. There are no connection between mother's nervous systems and her unborn child's.
  2. A mother will affect her unborn baby on the condition that . A. she is emotionally shocked B. she has a good knowledge of inheritance C. she takes part in all kind of activities D. she sticks to studying
  3. According to the passage, a child may inherit. A. everything from his mother B. a knowledge of mathematics C. a rather general ability that we call intelligence D. her mother's musical ability
  4. If a child inherits something from his mother, such as an especially sensitive ear, a peculiar structure of the hands or of the vocal organs, he will . A. surely become musician B. mostly become a poet C. possibly become a teacher D. become a musician on the condition that all these factors are organized around music
  5. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. Role of Inheritance. B. An Unborn Child. C. Function of instincts.
川大金榜考博,助你金榜题名 1
D. Inherited Talents. Passage 2 A controversy erupted in the scientific community in early 1998 over the use of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid ) fingerprinting in criminal investigations. DNA fingerprinting was introduced in 1987 as a method to identify individuals based on a pattern seen in their DNA, the molecule of which genes are made. DNA is present in every cell of the body except red blood cells. DNA fingerprinting has been used successfully in various ways, such as to determine paternity where it is not clear who the father of a particular child is. However, it is in the area of criminal investigations that DNA fingerprinting has potentially powerful and controversial uses. DNA fingerprinting and other DNA analysis techniques have revolutionized criminal investigations by giving investigators powerful new tools in the attempt to trove guilt, not just establish innocence. When used in criminal investigations, a DNA fingerprint pattern from a suspect is compared with a DNA fingerprint pattern obtained from such material as hairs or blood found at the scene of a crime. A match between the two DNA samples can be used as evidence to convict a suspect. The controversy in 1998 stemmed form a report published in December 1991 by population geneticists Richard C. Lewontin of Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., and Daniel L. Hartl called into question the methods to calculate how likely it is that a match between two DNA fingerprints might occur by chance alone. In particular, they argued that the current method cannot properly determine the likelihood that two DNA samples will match because they came from the same individual rather than simply from two different individuals who are members of the same ethnic group. Lewontin and Hartl called for better surveys of DNA patterns methods are adequate. In response to their criticisms, population geneticists Ranajit Chakraborty of the University of Texas in Dallas and Kenneth K.Kidd of Yale University in New Haven, Conn., argued that enough data are already available to show that the methods currently being used are adequate. In January 19
  98, however, the federal Bureau of Investigation and laboratories that conduct DNA tests announced that they would collect additional DNA samples form various ethnic groups in an attempt to resolve some of these questions. And, in April, a National Academy of Sciences called for strict standards and system of accreditation for DNA testing laboratories.
  1.Before DNA fingerprinting is used, suspects. A.would have to leave their fingerprints for further investigations B.would have to submit evidence for their innocence C.could easily escape conviction of guilt D.could be convicted of guilt as well
  2.DNA fingerprinting can be unreliable when . A.the methods used for blood- cell calculation are not accurate B.two different individuals of the same ethnic group may have the same DNA fingerprinting pattern C.a match is by chance left with fingerprints that happen to belong to two different individuals D.two different individuals leave two DNA samples.
  3.To geneticists like Lewontin and Hartl, the current method . A.is not so convincing as to exclude the likelihood that two DNA samples can never come from two individuals B.is arguable because two individuals of the same ethnic group are likely to have the same DNA pattern. C.Is not based on adequate scientific theory of genetics D.Is theoretically contradictory to what they have been studying
  4.The attitude of the Federal Bereau of Investigation shows that . A.enough data are yet to be collected form various ethnic groups to confirm the unlikelihood of two DNA samples coming from two individual members B.enough data of DNA samples should be collected to confirm that only DNA samples from the same person can match
川大金榜考博,助你金榜题名 2
C.enough data are yet to be collected from various ethnic groups to determine the likelihood of two different DNA samples coming form the same person D.additional samples from various ethnic groups should be collected to determine that two DNA samples are unlikely to come from the same person
  5.National Academy of Sciences holds the stance that . A.DNA testing should be systematized B.Only authorized laboratories can conduct DNA testing C.The academy only is authorized to work out standards for testing D.The academy has the right to accredit laboratories for DNA testing Passage 3 A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than is possible to learn in general history classes. Most typical history courses concentrate on politics, economics, and war. But art history focuses on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also religious beliefs, emotions, and psychology. In addition, information about the daily activities of our ancestors?or of people very different from our own?can be provided by art. In short, art expresses the essential qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offer us a deeper understanding than can be found in most history books. In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is presented; that is, facts about politics are given, but opinions are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is subjective: it reflects emotions and opinions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya was perhaps the first truly “political” artist. In his well-known painting The Third of May 18
  08, he criticized the Spanish government for its misuse of power over people. Over a hundred years later, symbolic images were used in Pablo Picasso's Guernica to express the horror of war. Meanwhile, on another continent, the powerful paintings of Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros?as well as the works of Alfredo Ramos Martines?depicted these Mexican artists' deep anger and sadness about social problems. In the same way, art can reflect a culture's religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art was almost the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings that depicted people and stories from the Bible. Although most people couldn't read, they could still understand biblical stories in the pictures on church walls. By contrast, one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East was (and still is) its absence of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues are unholy.
  1.More can be learned about a culture from a study of art history than general history because art history__. A.show us the religious and emotions of a people in addition to political values. B.provide us with information about the daily activities of people in the past. C.give us an insight into the essential qualities of a time and a place. D.all of the above.
  2.Art is subjective in that__. A.a personal and emotional view of history is presented through it. B.it can easily rouse our anger or sadness about social problems. C.it will find a ready echo in our hearts. D.All of the above.
  3.Which of the following statements is not true according to the passage? A.Unlike Francisco Goya,Pablo and several Mexican artists expressed their political opinions in their paintings. B.History books often reveal the compilers' political views. C.Religious art remained in Europe for centuries the only type of art because most people regarded the Bible as theHoly Book. D.All the above mentioned.
川大金榜考博,助你金榜题名 3

  4.The passage is mainly discussing__. A.the difference between general history and art history. B.The making of art history. C.What can we learn from art. D.The influence of artists on art history.
  5.It may be concluded from this passage that__. A.Islamic artists have had to create architectural decorations with images of flowers or geometric forms. B.History teachers are more objective than general history. C.It is more difficult to study art history than general history. D.People and stories from the Bible were painted on churches and other buildings in order to popularize the Bible. Passage 4 Recent research has claimed that an excess of positive ions in the air can have an ill effect on people's physical or psychological health. What are positive ions?Well,the air is full of ions,electrically charged particles,and generally there is a rough balance between the positive and the negative charged. But sometimes this balance becomes disturbed and a larger proportion of positive ions are found. This happens naturally before thunderstorm,earthquakes when winds such as the Mistral,Hamsin or Sharav are blowing in certain countries. Or it can be caused by a build-up of static electricity indoors from carpets or clothing made of man-made fibres, or from TV sets,duplicators or computer display screens. When a large number of positive ions are present in the air many people experience unpleasant effects such as headaches, fatigue, irritability, some particularly sensitive people suffer nausea or even mental disturbance. and Animals are also affected,particularly before earthquakes,snakes have been observed to come out of hibernation,rats to flee from their burrows,dogs howl and cats jump about unaccountably. This has led the US Geographical Survey to fund a network of volunteers to watch animals in an effort to foresee such disasters before they hit vulnerable areas such as California. Conversely,when large numbers of negative ions are present,then people have a feeling of well-being. Natural conditions that produce these large amounts


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