2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题
Section I Directions:
Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the b est word (s) for each nu mbered blank a nd mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) In 1924 America's National Research Council sent to engineers to supervise a series of e xperiments at a telephone-parts fac tory called the Hawthorne Pl ant near C hicago. It hoped they would learn how shop fl oor lighting 1 workers’ productivity. Instead, giving their na me to t he "Hawthorne effect", the extremely the studies ended 2 influential idea that the very 3 of be ing experimented u pon ch anged s ubjects' behavior. The i dea ar ose bec ause of the 4 behavior of the w omen in th e p lant. According to 5 of the e xperiments, t heir ho urly out put rose whe n lighting what was done in the was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not 6 something was ch anged, productivity rose. A (n) 8 that experiment; 7 they were being experimented upon seemed to be 9 to alter workers' behavior its elf. 10 to econometric the analysis. After several decades, the same data were 11 The Hawthorne experiments had another surprise store. 12 the descriptions on record, no systematic 1 3 was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting. It turns out that peculiar way of cond ucting the ex periments may have led to 14 interpretations of what happened. 15 , lighting was always changed on a rose co mpared with Sunday. When work started again on M onday, output 16 the previous Saturday and 17 to rise for the next couple of day s. 18 ,a comparison with data for weeks when th ere was no experim entation showed that to be diligent for the first few output always went up on Mondays. Workers 19 days of the week in any case, before 2 0 a plate au and t hen sl ackening off . This suggests that the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down.
  1. [A] affected
  2. [A] at
  3. [A] truth [ [B] [B] achieved B] up sight [B] perplexing [B] explanations [B] matter [B] for fear that [B] expectation [ [C] [ [C] [ C] extracted [ C] with act [ [D D] restored D] off ] proof [D] ambiguous assessments D] work [D] so long as [D] illusion

  4. [A] controversial
  5. [A] requirements
  6. [A] conclude
  7. [A] as far as
  8. [A] awareness
[C] mischievous accounts C] indicate [C] in case that [C] sentiment [D] [

  9. [A] suitable
  10. [A] about [
[B]
excessive B] for [B] shown [
[C]
enough C] on [
[D
] abundant D] by [D] conveyed [D] Peculiar to [D] source [D] misleading

  11. [A] compared
  12. [A] Contrary to
  13. [A] evidence
  14. [A] disputable
  15. [A] In contrast
  16. [A] duly
  17. [A] failed
  18. [A]Therefore
  19. [A] attempted
  20. [A] breaking [B]
[C] subjected [C] Parallel with [C] implication [C] reliable
[B] Consistent with [B] guidance [B] enlightening [B] For example [B] accidentally [B] ceased [C] [C]
[C] In consequence [D] As usual [C] unpredictably [D] suddenly started [D ] continued ]Meanwhile intended [D] hitting
[B] Furthermore tended [B] climbing Section II
However [D hose [C] surpassing [D]
[C]c
Reading Comprehension
Part A Directions: Read the followi ng f our texts. Ans wer the q uestions be low eac h te xt by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points)
Text 1 Of all t he changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. It is dif ficult to the point o f impossibility for the a verage reader under t he age of forty to imagine a time when h igh-quality arts cri ticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a c onsiderable n umber of the m ost sign ificant c ollections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies. We are eve n farther rem oved from the u nfocused newspaper review s pub lished i n England between t he turn of t he 2 0th c entury an d the e ve of W orld War Ⅱ, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was consi dered an ornament to the publications in w hich it appeared. In thos e far-off days, it w as taken for gra nted that the cri tics of major p apers woul d wri te i n detail a nd a t length about the events t hey covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, li ke G eorge Bern ard Shaw and Er nest N ewman, cou ld b e trus ted t o k now what
they w ere a bout. Th ese m en believed in j ournalism as a c alling, and w ere pro ud to be published in the daily press. “So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own e nd u p i n j ournalism, ”N ewman w rote, “ that I am tem pted t o d efine ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of cont empt appl ied by writers who are not r ead to writ ers wh o are’. ” Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 19 17 until sh ortly b efore his de ath i n 1 975, is n ow k nown solely as a w riter of essay s on the game of crick et. During his lifetime, thou gh, h e w as also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography(19
  47)became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists. Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Jour nalistic t astes had changed long b efore h is dea th, an d postmodern reader s have little use for t he ric hly upholstered V icwardian prose i n w hich he sp ecialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
  21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that [A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers. [B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews. [C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers. [D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.
  22. Newspaper reviews in England before world warⅡwere characterized by [A] free themes. [B] casual style. [C] elaborate layout. [D] radical viewpoints.
  23. which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on? [A] It is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals. [B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists. [C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism. [D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
  24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs? [A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today. [B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute. [C]His style caters largely to modern specialists. [D]His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
  25. What would be the best title for the text? [A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days. [B] The lost Horizon in Newspapers. [C] Mournful Decline of Journalism. [D] Prominent Critics in Memory. Text 2 Over the past decade, th ousands of pat ents hav e bee n granted for w hat are called business methods. Amazon.com received one for i ts "one-click" online payment system. Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box. Now the na tion’s to p patent c ourt a ppears com pletely ready to s cale ba ck o n
business-method p atents, which have been co ntroversial e ver si nce t hey w ere first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz, the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very big deal,” s ay D ennis D . Crouch of the U niversity of Missouri Sc hool of Law . It “ has t he potential to eliminate an entire class of patents.” Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the Federal Circuit itself that introduced such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling pr oduced a n ex plosion i n b usiness-method p atent fi lings, initially by em erging Internet c ompanies try ing to st ake o ut exc lusive ri ghts to s pecific ty pes of online transactions. Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a d efensive move against rivals that might beat them to the p unch. In 2005, IBM noted i n a c ourt fi ling th at it h ad be en i ssued m ore th an 300 business-method patents, despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment firms armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice. The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The F ederal Circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should “reconsider” its State Street Bank ruling. The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders.Last April, for exam ple, the justices sign aled t hat t oo m any pat ents w ere be ing u pheld f or “inventions” t hat are obvious. The judges on t he Fed eral Circ uit a re “ reacting t o th e anti-patent trend at t he Supre me Court , ” says Harol d C. Wegner, a patent a ttorney and professor at George Washington University Law School.
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to businesses. [B] their connection with asset allocation. [C] the possible restriction on their granting. [D] the controversy over their authorization.
  27. which of the following is true of the Bilski case? [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions. [B] It involves a very big business transaction. [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit [D] It may change the legal practices in the U. S.
  28. The word “about-face ”(Line 1, Para .
  3) most probably means [A] loss of goodwill. [B] increase of hostility. [C] change of attitude. [D] enhancement of dignity.
  29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents [A] are immune to legal challenges. [B] are often unnecessarily issued. [C] lower the esteem for patent holders. [D] increase the incidence of risks.
  30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
[A] A looming threat to business-method patents. [B] Protection for business-method patent holders. [C] A legal case regarding business-method patents. [D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents. Text 3 In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that “social epidemics” are driven in large part by the actions of a ti ny minority of specia l individuals, often called influentials, who are u nusually inform ed, pers uasive, or w ell co nnected. The idea is intuitively compelling, but it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread. The s upposed im portance of inf luentials deri ves fro m a pla usible-sounding b ut largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of co mmunication”: Information flows from the m edia t o t he inf luentials and from them to ev eryone els e. M arketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain t he s udden a nd unexpected p opularity of c ertain lo oks, bra nds, or neighborhoods. In many such c ases, a cursory search for causes fi nds t hat som e sm all group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends. In their recent work, however, some researchers ha ve come up w ith the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they don’t seem to be required at all. The res earchers’ argument s tems fro m a si mple observa tion about soc ial inf luence: With the e xception of a fe w cele brities like Oprah W infrey-whose outsize prese nce is primarily a func tion of media, n ot interpersonal, influence-even t he m ost influ ential members of a po pulation simply don’t interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity influentials who, according to t he two-step-flow theory, are su pposed to drive social epidemics, by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won
 

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