2010 年研究生入学考试英语作文大预 测(三) 三
http://www.sina.com.cn 2009 年 12 月 15 日 15:53 迦思佑教育
儒学在美国
《红色娘子军》舞动巴黎
文明冲突(civilization conflict/ Huntington defines eight major civilizations: (
  1) Western - which includes Western Europe and North America; (
  2) Slavic-Orthodox; (
  3) Islamic - which includes three subdivisions: Arab, Turkic and Malay; (
  4) Latin American; (
  5) Hindu; (
  6) Confucian; (
  7) Japanese; and (
  8) African。 Huntington says that "The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future." He continues, "Over the centuries ... differences among civilizations have generated the most prolonged and the most violent conflict" [2] - more so even than ideological conflict. The reason? - because differences between civilizations "... are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes ..."[3] And the evidence for Huntington's assertion is easily discernible in what's going on in the former Yugoslavia. Indeed, it's only in "civilization" (or religious) terms that any sense can be made of the alliance structures that have grown up as a result of the conflict: Germany, France and Austria (and, as a result, the E.C。) favor Slovenia and Croatia (which are Catholic and Western Christian); Russia and the "Eastern Slavs" favor Serbia (which is - like the rest of the Slavic states - Orthodox); and Turkey and Iran favor the Muslims of Bosnia (which are Islamic). Indeed, the Balkans have been a tinderbox of conflict for hundreds of years precisely because they lie at the convergence of three major civilizations (or religions) and the cultures which these religions undergird: Western Christianity (Slovenia, Croatia, etc。); Orthodox Christianity (Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia, etc。); and Islam (Turkey, Albania, etc。)。 I think, we're in a New Axial Age. The idea of Axial Age was proposed by German philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-19
  69), defined as around 500 B.C. when great thinkers appeared almost simultaneous in Ancient Greece, Israel, India and China, contributing their original ideas to the problems concerning the existence of human being. Distinctive cultural traditions were then formed respectively by Socrates and Plato in Ancient Greece, Lai-zi and Confucius in China, Sakyamuni in India, and Jewish prophets in Israel, which, after more than two thousand years of progress, have become the principle part of human intellectual wealth. These local cultural traditions were independent in birth, without mutual influence. "Until today mankind has lived by what happened during the Axial Period, by what was thought and created during that period. In each new upward flight it returns in recollection to this period and is fired anew by it. Even since then it has been the case that recollections and reawakenings of the potentialities of the Axial Period - renaissances - afford a spiritual impetus." For example, the Europeans in Renaissance had recollected the origin of their culture, Ancient Greece, which had fired anew the European civilization and left its mark on global culture. Similarly, the Song and Ming
Neo-Confucianism in China was stimulated by the impacts of Indian Buddhism; the Confucian thinkers, by "recollecting" Confucius and Mencius in pre-Qing Period, had promoted the ingenious Chinese philosophy to a new height. In a certain sense, the contemporary progress of global cultures might be a new leap on the basis of Axial Age. Has the contemporary human culture created, or will create, a New Axial Age then? -- Judged from certain evidences, it might be。 If Chinese culture hopes to contribute to the "coexistence of civilizations" in contemporary human society, it must needs to know itself, which means a cultural self-consciousness. The so-called "cultural self-consciousness" is the serious self-reflection by certain people in certain cultural tradition on their own culture's origin, its history of formation, its characters (including both advantages and disadvantages) and its tendency of progress. The renewal of Chinese nation is on the eve. To achieve this goal, we must have a self-knowledge about Chinese culture, posit it on a proper place, and search with enthusiasm the genuine spirit of this culture with a long history, in order to present its essence to modern human society. Besides, we must reflect the disadvantages of our culture as well, to better the absorptions of other cultures' essences, and to re-interpret it in a modern way adapting to the general tendency of progress of modern society. Only after this retrospective reflection could our country march as vanguard in the progress of global culture, and create a brave new world together with other cultures。 Confucianism and Taoism were principle schools of thinking in traditional Chinese culture, usually regarded as mutual complementary - of course, after Indian Buddhism was introduced into China, it also played an important role in Chinese society and culture. Now I'd like to discuss whether the Confucian and Taoist thinking could provide meaningful sources for the doctrine of "coexistence of civilizations"。 (
  1) The Confucian doctrine of Ren (仁: benevolence, virtue) is a resource of thinking with positive meaning for the "coexistence of civilizations"。
2010 年研究生入学考试英语作文大预 测三(
  2) 测三
http://www.sina.com.cn 2009 年 12 月 15 日 15:53 迦思佑教育
"The Way originates in Emotion" (道始于情), as prescribed in "Destiny is the resource of Human nature" (性自命出), manuscript in Guodian Bamboo Slips (《郭 店竹简》). "The Way" here means "the Way of Human" (人道), i.e. the principles in
dealing with human (or in anther word, social) relationships, which is different from "the Way of Heaven" (天道), i.e. the laws of nature or of universe. Human relationships are established on the basis of emotion, which is the starting point of Confucian doctrine of Ren. Once a disciple named Fan Chi asked Confucius: "What is Ren?" The answer was: "To love people." Where is the origin of this thought, "to love people"? In The Doctrine of the Mean a saying of Confucius was quoted as: "Ren is the characteristic element of humanity, and the great exercise of it is in loving relatives."[17] The spirit of Benevolence and Love (仁爱) is rooted in human nature, and to love one's relative is the most basic exercise of it. But the spirit of Ren goes far beyond this level. To quote Guodian Bamboo Slips: "To love and love deep, that is love; but to enlarge the love of one's father to the love of human being, that is Ren."[18] "The enlargement of filial piety is to love all the people below Heaven."[19] From these sayings we observe that the Confucian Doctrine of Ren demands to enlarge "the love of relatives" to "the benevolence on people", i.e. to "enlarge one's self-concern to the concern on others" (推己及人), to "treat with the reverence due to age the elders in your own family, so that the elders in the families of others shall be similarly treated; treat with the kindness due to youth the young in your own family, so that the young in the families of others shall be similarly treated"[20] - that is Ren. It is not easy to practice the doctrine of "enlarging one's self-concern to the concern on others", which requires a "practice of Ren" rooting in "the Way of Loyalty and Forgiveness" (忠恕之道), i.e. "never do to others as you do not wish done on yourself"[21], "wishing to be established himself, he seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others".[22] ("Loyalty is complete devotion of oneself; Forgiveness is the deduction of one's self-concern." 朱熹:《四书集注》)。 If Ren is to be enlarged to the whole society, it would be as what Confucius once said: "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a junzi (君子: gentleman, nobleman) can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will return to Ren (after his example). Is the practice of Ren from a man himself, or is it from others?"[23] "To subdue one's self" and "to return to propriety" are usually interpreted as paralleling teachings, but I don't think this is the best explanation of this doctrine. "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue" actually means only the "returning to propriety" based on "subduing of one's self" could be regarded as Ren. Mr. Fei Xiaotong had his own interpretation about this doctrine: "Only after one has subdued one's self could one return to propriety. The return to propriety is prerequisite for one to enter the society and become a social man. Perhaps it is just on this point Western and Eastern civilizations have parted, that is, whether to expand or to subdue one's self."[24] I think Mr. Fei has made a proper remark. Zhu Xi also
had an exegesis on this doctrine. "To subdue means to conquer," he said, "and the ‘self' means one's personal desires. To return means to restore, and the ‘propriety' means the laws and patterns of the Principle of Heaven." According to this exegesis, one should subdue one's personal desires to abide by proprieties and social criterions. Ren is one's natural virtues ("Love is born in nature."[25]); and propriety is exterior conventions to rule one's behavior, the function of which is to adjust social relationships so that people could live in harmony, as: "The most valuable function of propriety is harmony."[26] Only if one abides by proprieties and social criterions by free will, i.e. by an innate will to love people, could one fulfill the demands of Ren. Thus Confucius asked: "Is the practice of Ren from a man himself, or is it from others?" He made definite prescriptions to the relationship between Ren and propriety: "If a man be without Ren, what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without Ren, what has he to do with music?"[27] He who sets the rites or music without a heart of Benevolence and Love is hypocrite, and is in a purpose of cheat. It is in this sense that Confucius thought, if people would pursue Ren by freewill and practice the demanding of a heart of Benevolence and Love according to proprieties in everyday life, harmony and peace would be realized in society, -- "If a junzi can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will return to Ren." I think this Confucian teaching is not totally meaningless for the political leaders of a state or the ruling classes in developed countries (United States in particular). "The politics of Ren" (仁 政), or "the Way of virtuous emperor" (王道) instead of "the Way of hegemon" (霸 道), is indispensable to "order the state" (治国) and to "harmonize all under Heaven" (平天下). If "the politics of Ren" or "the Way of virtuous emperor" is practiced, different cultures would be able to coexist and develop in peace; while "the Way of hegemon" will bring forth the "clash of civilizations", resulting in monoculturalism and cultural Hegemonism. If Confucian doctrine of Ren is applied in regulating intercultural relationships, clash or war of civilizations will be avoided, and the coexistence of civilizations achieved。 Of course, even the Confucian doctrine of Ren is no miracle drug to solve all the problems about the existence of civilizations in contemporary society. However, as a set of moral self-regulations based on Ren, it would undoubtedly be of some practical significance to harmonize the coexistence of civilizations if practiced as a principle to regulate intercultural relationships。 It is not easy to make different cultures get on in harmony and thus to make states and nations in different cultural traditions coexist in peace. Probably the Confucian doctrine of "Harmony in Diversity" (和而不同)[28] could provide us with an illuminating resource of thinking. According to Confucius, "The virtuous (junzi) get on in harmony without agreeing to each other; the base (xiaoren) agree with others
without harmony."[29] Junzi, as intellectuals with moral discipline practicing the Way of Loyalty and Forgiveness, should try to get on in harmony in spite of their different opinions; but those with no morality or discipline always force others to accept their opinions, thus could not stay harmoniously. If this doctrine of "Harmony in Diversity" could be applied as a principle in dealing with intercultural relationships, it should be of very positive meaning to solve the conflicts among states or nations. It would be especially true in dealing with those disaccords and conflicts provoked by cultural differences (e.g. the differences on religious believes or values) among states or nations, that if we practice the teaching of "Harmony in Diversity" as principle to solve these conflicts。
2010 年研究生入学考试英语作文大预 测三(
  3) 测三
http://www.sina.com.cn 2009 年 12 月 15 日 15:53 迦思佑教育
"Harmony" and "Sameness" are generally regarded as different concepts in traditional Chinese thinking. There was even "a debate on the difference between Harmony and Sameness". As a story recorded in Zuo-zhuan told us, once the Duke of Qi asked Yan-zi: "Is there only Ju get on with me in harmony?" The reply of Yan-zi was: "Ju merely expresses the same opinion with Your Highness, -- how could it be called har
 

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