中考语法专项复习
定语从句
定语从句
在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。
This is the pen which I bought yesterday. which
先行词
??????????????????????? ?
关系词
定语从句
宾语从句是主从复合句的一种。主从复合句是 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的。 主句是复合句的主体,从句仅仅是主句的一个 成分,它从属于主句,不能独立。从句在全句中 充当什么成分,就叫什么从句。宾语从句当中的 从句在全句中作宾语。
由从属连词that引导的宾语从句 由从属连词that引导的宾语从句 that
由连接代词 Who,whom,whose,which, what 和连接副词 where,how,why,when 引导的宾语从句 由从属连词 whether, if 引导的宾语从句
注:that 在句中无词汇意义,在从句中不能充当成分,
在口语当中往往省略 e.g. he will be back in an hour
  1. I hear (that) . (一小时后他会回来) he missed us very much
  2. He said (that) . (他非常想念我们) the earth moves around the sun
  3. The teacher told us (that) .
(地球围着太阳转)
由连接代词what, whom, whose, which, what及连接 副词 when, where, how, why引导的宾语从句
who could answer the question
  1. He asked . (谁能回答这个问题) whom they are waiting for
  2. Do you know. (他们在等谁)
  3. He asked whose handwriting was the best in the class .
(谁的书法是班上最好的)

  5.
Do you know .(地球和月亮,哪一个比较小)
when we’ll have a meeting
  6. Please tell me . (我们什么时候开会) where he is
  7. Can you tell me . (他在哪儿) how I can get to the station
  8. Could you tell me . (我该怎么去车站) why the train is late
  9. Would you tell me (为什么火车迟到了)
由从属连词whether, if 引导的宾语从句 由从属连词
e.g. if (whether) he will go to the park with us
  1. I want to know .
(他是否跟我们一起去公园)

  2. Ask him whether (if) he can come . (他是否能来) whether it is going to rain or not
  3. I don’t know .(是否要下雨)
当句末为or 而不能用if. 当句末为 not时,引导词只能用 时 引导词只能用whether而不能用 而不能用
? What’re Beijing these? ?They’re cats. ?What do they look like? ? They have white hair. They’re cats which have white hair.
关系词( 先行词 /关系词(做主语 关系词 做主语=cats) )
What is this? Hongkong It’s a plane It can take us to everywhere.
It’s a plane which can take us to everywhere.
关系词( 做主语) 先行词 /关系词(在从句中做主语 关系词 在从句中做主语
This is an English book.
We use it in our English class
This is an English book which we use in our English class.
的宾语) 先行词/关系词( 的宾语 先行词 关系词(做use的宾语) 关系词
总结
which 当先行词指物时 当先行词指物时,关系词用 . 指物
(二)
? What is the girl doing? ? She is reading. ? Do you know her? ? --Yes, I do. I know her. She’s from Class three.
I know the girl who is reading
关系词( 先行词 /关系词(做主语 关系词 做主语=the boy)
Guess who he is! He is an athlete. He makes a lot of money. He is more than 2 meters tall. Yao Ming is an athlete who makes a lot of money. Yao Ming is an athlete who is more than 2 meters tall
He wears glasses. He is very famous in the world. He has blue eyes. He often sees strange things.
who wears glasses Harry Porter is a boy . who is famous in the world Harry Porter is a boy . Harry Porter is a boy . who has blue eyes
总结: 总结:
当先行词指人时 关系词用 who 当先行词指人时,关系词用. 指人
who or which?
which / that 1 I like the movies make me happy. who / that 2 He is the kind of person helps others. 3 I love singers can dance. who / that which / that 4 China is a big country has long history. 5 Do you like the jacket is made in Japan? which / that 6 He is a teacher you can make friends with. who / that 补充:其实在定语从句中, 补充:其实在定语从句中,无论先行词是指人 或物,都可以使用that作为关系词。 作为关系词。 或物,都可以使用 作为关系词
This is Hawaii.The beaches are beautiful in Hawaii. This is Hawaii where the beaches are beautiful. 先行词//关系词(在从句中做状语=in Hawaii) 先行词 关系词(在从句中做状语 关系词 (三)
I like Canada. We can see Niagara Falls in Canada. I like Canada where we can see Niagara Falls.
(=in Canada)
I want to visit Africa. The people are really friendly in Africa . I’ve never been to Africa wherethe people are really where friendly.
(=in Africa)
试比较:

  1.HongKong is a place . We can do lots of shopping in this place. Hongkong is a place we can where do lots of shopping. (做状语 做状语=in HongKong) 做状语
  2. HongKong is a place. The place has lots of things to see and buy. which / that Hongkong is a place has lots of things to see and buy. (做主语 做主语=HongKong) 做主语
总结

  1.当先行词是表地点的名词时,而且它在从句 当先行词是表地点的名词时 当先行词是表地点的名词 中做状语 那么关系词就用. 状语, 中做状语,那么关系词就用 where

  2.
但表地点的名词如果在从句中做主语或宾 但表地点的名词如果在从句中做主语或宾 地点的名词如果在从句中做 语时,关系词就用 . which/that

  1. I like music. The music has great lyrics. I like music that/which has great lyrics .
  2. I love music. I can sing along with music. I love music . with that /which I can sing along
  3. I like music. The music isn’t too loud. I like music . that/which isn’t too loud
  4. I like music. I can dance to music. . I like music . that/which I can dance to
直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系
陈述句变为引导的宾语从句
e.g.
  1. He said, “You are younger than I ”. He said that I was younger than him.
  2. He says, “Tom is a good student ”. He says that Tom is a good student.
直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系
一般疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句
e.g.
  1. She said, “ Do you often come here to read newspaper? ”
She asked if (whether) I often came here to read newspaper.

  2.
“Will they go to visit the Great Wall?” he asked.
He asked if (whether) they would go visit the Great Wall.
直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系
特殊疑问句变为who, what, when等引导的宾语从句 特殊疑问句变为 等引导的宾语从句 e.g.
  1. He asked, “Where do you live?” He asked where I lived.
  2. “How can we get to the post-office?” he asked. He asked how they could get to the post-office.
直接引语变间接引语与宾语从句的关系
注 意:

  1、当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,宾语 从句的谓语动词可以用所需要的任何一种时态。
  2、当主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,宾语从句的谓语 动词要用相应的过去时态,但当宾语从句叙述的内容 为客观真理时,仍然用一般现在时。 e.g.
The teacher said that the moon moves around the sun.
had been The radio says it cloudy tomorrow. (be) goes The headmaster hopes everything well. (go) were playing Tom says that they (play) basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. has returned I hear they (return) it already. will be He said that they members of the Party since 19
  48. (be) were doing He asked what they at eight last night. (do) travels The teacher told his class that light faster than sound. (travel) are talking I think you about the relay race now. (talk) were I didn’t know whom the letters from. (be)
wrote
  10. I didn’t know what time he the letter.
(write)
moves
  11. Miss Wang told me that the earth (move)
round the earth.
has taken
  12. Could you tell me who away the book
already? (take)
  13. Ling Feng told me he to several times. (be) has been
rises
  14. Our teacher told us in class the sun in the
east. (rise)
did
  15. Can you tell me what they yesterday? (do)
将下列句子合并为一句: 将下列句子合并为一句:

  1. Where do they stop on the way? I asked. I asked where they stopped on the way.
  2. What will you speak at the meeting? Could you tell me? Could you tell me what you will speak at the meeting?
  3. Do they like to make friends with us? He asked. He asked if they liked to make friends with them.
  4. “ I am doing my homework.” He said. He said that he was doing his homework.
  5. “I will come back.” Tom said. Tom said that he would come back.
  6. “Is he doing his homework?” Jim asked. Jim asked if he was doing his homework.

  7. “When will he come back?” Tom asked.
Tom asked when he would come back.

  8. “How can I get to the station?” Could you tell me?
Could you tell me how I can get to the station?

  9. “Why is the train late?” Would you tell me?
Would you tell me why the train is late?

  10. “Where is Tom?” They asked.
They asked where Tom was.
 

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