初三英语总复习资料
八种动词时态,有的只要求达到理解层次,有的则要求达到熟练运用层次.至少其中五种时态包括过去进行时是 要求达到熟练运用层次的,而且其考查方式肯定不会以某一时态的独立形式出现,而是时态的综合运用,尤其要重视 各种时态之间的区别. 找出它们之间的不同冠词的用法. 现以冠词为例:
  1.John was given orange bag for his birthday but bag was lost just now. A.an,a B.a,the C.the,a D.an,the
  2.There's old tree near house. A.a,an B.an,the C.a,the D.the,a
  3.There is 800-metre-long road behind hospital.A.an,an B.a,a C.an,the D.a,the
  4. good,kind girl she is! A.How B.What a C.What D.How a
  5. bad weather!I hope it won't last long. A.How B.What C.What a D.How a
  6. they are listening to the teacher! A.How careful B.What careful C.How carefully D.What carefully 由上例题我们可以发现冠词和感叹句是必考内容.同样,象宾语从句的语序,代词的格,主谓语一致,动词和介 词的搭配,近义词的比较以及习惯表达法和情态动词的使用等,无一不在考查之列. 所有这一切语言基础知识,我 都将通过对典型试题的解题分析,展开讨论,分层展示难易对比,系统归纳. 对于语言基础知识是这样处理,那么对 以能力测试为主要目的的中考其他试题形式又该怎么办呢? 这里我们以一篇完形填空题为例: A poor farmer had never left his small village.After he(
  1) a lot of money,he decided to spend a holiday in an expensive hotel(旅馆)in a bigtown.(
  2)lunch time came on his first day there,he went to eat in the restaurant(餐馆)of the hotel(
  3) his new clothes.The head waiter(服务员)(
  4)him to the table,took his order and went away.When he turned and (
  5)the farmer again,he had a (
  6)!The farmer had tied(系)his table cloth round his (
  7). The head waiter told another waiter to go to the farmer and (
  8) him that people (
  9) do such a thing in his restaurant.So the waiter went tothe farmer and said in a (
  10) voice(声音),"Good morning,sir.Would you like a haircut?"
  1.A.lent B.made C.paid D.gave
  2.A.During B.Though C.When D.Because
  3.A.for B.with C.on D.in
  4.A.wanted B.put C.showed D.brought
  5.A.looked at B.watched C.saw D.found
  6.A.look B.rest C.table cloth D.surprise
  7.A.arm B.neck C.hand D.head
  8.A.ask B.tell C.taught D.told
  9.A.can't B.don't C.won't D.mustn't
  10.A.friendly B.tired C.sad D.ter 要求考生从所给的选项中选出正确答案,使补足后的短文意思通顺,结构完整.对此,考生必须通篇考虑,不能 拿来就做,那样必然顾此失彼,前后意思不得连贯.目前的中考完型还侧重于语法,这将在逐年试题的变革中转向按 上下文的要求来推断理解. 在解这类题时,必须掌握"词感现象" ,注意学会区分"干扰项" .所谓词感, "the sense of word"是指一种对词或 词群的感受能力.对词的感受力强,在解题时会较为容易地找到它与情景的关系.词感并不仅仅指词与词之间的细微 差异,也并不注重词的搭配与组合,它较多地强调选用恰当的词,以利于对情景作出合乎逻辑的判断.同时也就把其 它三个作为干扰项的选择项排除掉了.最后复读一篇全文,就会语感流畅,句意明确. 这儿举例的目的是想说明,我从一个较高的立意来对中考题型,特别是完形,阅读等,进行分析,探讨,借以使 同学们获得较为完整的解题思路和解题方法.
词汇(一)
这一讲里,主要帮助同学们掌握名词,冠词,数词的用法,特别是针对同学不易掌握的方面. 一,名词 关于名词,我们必须掌握名词的数,名词的格. 单数可用 a,an 来修饰可数名词单数,在元音发音开头的单词前用 an,而不是 a
  1.复数的构成方法:(
  1)一般在复数名词后加 s,如:dog--dogs. (
  2)以 s,x,ch,sh 结尾的名词加 es,如:watch--watches. (
  3)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i 加 es, 如:country--countries. 请区别:如果是元音字母加 y 结尾的名词,则只须加 s. 如:monkey--monkeys. (
  4)以 o 结尾的名词,只有 potato(土豆),tomato(西红柿)加 es 构成复数. (
  5)以 f,fe 结尾的名词,变 f,fe 为 v 再加 es, 如:knife--knives.
  2.单复数形式相同的词:sheep--sheep,fish--fish Chinese--Chinese,Japanese--Japanese
  3.特殊变化的单词有:(
  1)tooth--teeth,foot--feeth (
  2)man--men,woman--women,policeman--policemen,Frenchman--Frenchmen 请区别:German(德国人)?Germans (
  3)child?children
  4.常以复数形式出现的名词:people(人),clothes(衣服),trousers(裤子) glasses(眼镜) ,这些名词作主语时,同学们应特 别注意它们的谓语,用复数. 如:My clothes are (be) newer than yours.

  5.有些名词看似复数形式, 实际上是单数. 这一点是同学不易掌握的, 应特别加以记忆. 如: news(消息), maths(数学), physics(物理) No news is good news.
  6.可用 how many, many, few, a few, lot of, of, a lots some, 等来修饰可数名词复数. How many are there in your any pencil-box?(knife) 不 可 数 名 词 :
  1. 常 见 的 不 可 数 名 词 有 : water , rice , fish , meat , 等 . 应 特 别 记 medicine,news,work,homework,housework,money,chalk,weather,cotton,wood.
  2.不可数名词无复数,作主语时常看成单数.如:Some breadover there.(be)
  3.常用 how much,much,a little,little,a lot of,some,any 等来修饰不可数名词.
  4.常用 a piece of,a cup of 等来表示不可数名词的量.如要表达"两片面包"这样的意义,bread 仍为不可数名词,不加 s,而 piece 则可加 s.即:twopiecesof bread 请区别:可数名词也可用量来表示, 如:三箱苹果 three boxes of apples 例: 1,These two pieces of bread over there.(be) 2,Could I have three ,please? A.piece of bread B.piece of breads C.pieces of bread D.pieces of breads 名词的格 名词所有格的构成方法,在名词后加" 's" .如:Tom→Tom's 译为"…的" ,若遇上以 s 结尾的复数名 词,则在 s 后加" '"即可.如:Teachers'Day , twoweeks'holiday,而不以 s 结尾的复数名词的所有格,仍按惯例加's . 如:Children's Day 关于名词所有格,应掌握以下几点:
  1.可用名词所有格表示地点. 如:my aunt's 我姑姑家. go to the doctor's 去医生家.
  2.表示两人共同拥有,在最后一个名词后加's 如:Lucy and Lily's 露西和莉莉的
  3.掌握词组:a girl of five 一个五岁的女孩 a friend of mine 我的一个朋友 eg;The white shirt is and blue one is . A,Kate,my B.Kate's,mine C.Kate,mine D.Kate's,my
二,冠词
冠词是词汇中的基础的,也是简单的部分,所以同学们有必要掌握其基本用法,归纳起来,同学们应该掌握以下几 点:
  1.冠词指不定冠词 a,an 和定冠词 the
  2.不定冠词 an 常用于元音发音开头的词前,如:an hour,an English car. 请区别:a useful machine
  3.指上文提到过的人或物,用定冠词 the
  4.在世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词 the.如:the sun,the moon,the earth
  5.定冠词 the 用于序数词前,表示方位的名词和形容词最高级前.如:the first,the best ,in the south
  6.在复数姓氏前加 the,表示××一家人,常看成复数. 如:The Browns are going to Shanghai for a holiday this summer.
  7.在介词短语中常用定冠词 the,如:in the box ,behind the chair
  8.特别注意不能用定冠词 the 的几个方面: (
  1)在节日,星期,月份,季节,年等词前不用冠词.如:in summer,in August 请区别:in the spring of 19
  45. (这里表示特指,故加 the) (
  2)一日三餐和球类运动名不用冠词. 如:have breakfast ,play football (
  3)一些固定词组中,如:go to bed ,go to school,by bus ,at night.
  9.在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别: in front of 在…前面 in the hospital 在医院里 in the front of 在…范围内的前部 in hospital (生病)住院 练习:There's 800-metre-long road behind hospital. A.an,an B.a, a C.an, the D.a, the
三,数词
同学们首先应会读会写所有基数词和序数词,以及与数词有关的钟点表达法.对数词的考查,中考常采用单选题 及听力题,这些题型归纳起来,应掌握以下几点特别容易出错的地方.
  1.基数词变序数词.其规律为: 1,2,3 特殊记,加 th 从 4 起 (first,second,third,fourth) 8 少 t,9 去 e,千万别忘记 (eighth,ninth) 逢 5 逢 12,ve 变 f (fifth,twelfth) 20 到 90,y 要变 ie (twentieth,ninetieth) 若是几十几,前基后序别倒位 (ninety-first)
  2.hundred,thousand,million 在构成具体的数字时用单数形式. 如:five hundred people. 只有在表达笼统的多数时才 加 s,构成复数形式. hundreds of 数以百计的,成百上千的 thousands of 数以千计的,成千上万的 millions of 数百万的 这些词组前不能用具体数字.
  3.序数词常与定冠词 the 连用. 练习:①Henry has learned eight French words this year. A.hundred B.hundreds C.hundred of D.hundreds of ②The lesson is the most difficult one in Book Two. (twenty)
另外,同学们还应掌握与数词有关的钟点表达法. 顺读法(钟点+分钟) 如:4:30 four thirty 4:45 four forty-five 4:15 four fifteen 倒读法(分钟+to/past+钟点) 如:4:30 half past four 4:15 fifteen past four/a quarter past four 4:45 fifteen to five/a quarter to five 练习题 :
  1.At the beginning of the(twenty) century,the world's population was about 1700 million.
  2.Are these(watch)yours? Yes.
  3.You don't look well.You'd better go to the(doctor) at once.
  4.Would you give me,please? A.two papers B.two piece of paper C.two pieces of paper D.two pieces of papers
  5.There are threeand sevenin the picture. A.monkeys,sheeps B.monkeys,sheep C.monkies,sheep D.monkies,sheeps
  6.A lot ofare talking with two. A.Germans,Frenchmans B.Germen,Frenchmans C.German, Frenchmen D.Germans,Frenchmen
  7.June 1 is __. A.the Children's Day B.the Childrens' Day C.Children's Day D.Childrens' Day
  8.people went out to see what had happened. A.Thousands of B.Three thousand ofC.Thousand of D.Three thousands
  9.We have been in the school for. A.three and a half month B.three and a half months C.three month and a half D.three months and half
  10.English is useful language. A.A, an B./, a C.The, an D. A, /
  11.John was given orange bag for his birthday but bag was lost just now. A.an,a B.a,the C.the,a D.an,the
  12.There's old tree near house. A.a,an B.an,the C.a,the D.the,a
  13.There is 800-metre-long road behind hospital.A.an,an B.a,a C.an,the D.a,the
四.代词
主格: 单数 I ,you ,he ,she ,it 复数 we ,you ,they 宾格: 单数 me ,you ,him ,her ,it 复数 us ,you ,them ⑵物主代词: 形容词性 my ,your ,his ,her ,its ,our ,your ,their 名词性 mine ,yours ,his ,hers ,its ,ours ,yours ,theirs ③反身代词: myself ,yourself ,himself ,herself ,itself ,ourselves ,yourselves ,themselves
  1.形容词性物主代词在句中只能作定语,相当于一个形容词,名词性物主代词在句中可作表语,主语和宾语,相当于一 个名词.
  2.注意名词性物主代词在句中所指代的关系,是单数还是复数. 如:⑴These books aren't ours. Ours are new. (这里 ours=our books) ⑵This is not our room. Ours is over there. (这里 ours=our room)
  3."of+名词性物主代词"表示所属 如:a sister of his 他的一个妹妹 a friend of mine 我的一个朋友
  4.人称代词在并列使用时的顺序为: "第二人称,第三人称,第一人称" . 如:You, she and I all enjoy the music.
  5.关于反身代词,同学们须掌握其固定结构: enjoy oneself=have a good time (过得很愉快) by oneself=alone (单独,独自) help oneself to… (随便吃/喝 些...) learn sth. by oneself =teach oneself sth. (自学) 练习题
  1.-Whose trousers are these? -, I think. A.They B.Their C.Theirs D.Them
  2. Nobody taughtEnglish. He taught. A.him, himself B.his, himself C.him, by himself D.his, his (二) 修饰可数名词 many few 表否定意义 a few 表肯定意义 修饰不数名词 much little 表否定意义 a little 表肯定意义 few 和 little 与 quite 或 only 连用时, 常加不定冠词 a. 如:There are quite a few new books in the library.= 用 little, a little, few, a few 填空:
  1.I often stay at home because I have friends here.
  2.Jim,don't go and get some water. There is water in the glass.
  3.Though he learned French only weeks. He can speak very well.
  4.Lily had bread because she was hungry yesterday. (三)不定代词: something, anything, nothing. ①人称代词:
当形容词修饰这三个不定代词时,常后置. 如:something new There's in today's newspaper. 中考题 A.important anything B.important something C.anything important D.something important (四)另外,还要注意代词 some, every, all, both, either, another
  1.some(一些,某) 一般用于肯定句中 注:some 有时也可用于表示请求的疑问句中. any(任何) 多用于疑问句和否定句 ① Will you give me some water? ② Would you like some meat? ③ May I ask some questions? ④ Could I have some apples?
  2.every+单数名词 "每一个" 强调共性,作定语,形式上为单数. each "每一个" 强调个性,作定语,主语,宾语和同位语,常与 of 连用. 如: Each student was asked to try again. Each of them ha
 

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