In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically & semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes. Paralinguistic Features of Language In face-to-face communication speakers often alter their tomes of voice or change their physical postures in order to convey messages. These means are called paralinguistic features of language, which fall into two categories. First category: vocal paralinguistic features (
  1): to express attitude or intention Examples
  1. whispering:
  2. breathiness:
  3. (
  4. nasality: need for secrecy deep emotion unimportance anxiety (
  2) (

  5. extra lip-rounding: greater intimacy Second category: physical paralinguistic features facial expressions (
  3) (
smiling: signal of pleasure or welcome less common expressions eye brow raising: surprise or interest lip biting: (
  4) gesture gestures are related to culture. British culture shrugging shoulders: (
  5) scratching head: puzzlement other cultures placing hand upon heart:(
  6) pointing at nose: secret proximity, posture and echoing proximity: physical distance between speakers closeness: intimacy or threat (
  7): formality or absence of interest Proximity is person-, culture- and (
  8) -specific. posture hunched shoulders or a hanging head: to indeicate(
  9) (
  9) direct level eye contact: to express an open or challenging attitude echoing definition: imitation of similar posture (
  7) (
  8) (
  6) (
  5) (
  10): aid in communication conscious imitation: mockery SECTION B INTERVIEW
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.
  1. According to Dr Johnson, diversity means
A. merging of different cultural identities. B. more emphasis on homogeneity. C. embracing of more ethnic differences. D. acceptance of more branches of Christianity.
  2. According to the interview, which of the following statements in CORRECT?
A. Some places are more diverse than others. B. Towns are less diverse than large cities. C. Diversity can be seen everywhere. D. American is a truly diverse country.
  3. 2025? A. Maine B. Selinsgrove C. Philadelphia According to Dr Johnson, which place will witness a radical change in its racial makeup by
D. California
  4. During the interview Dr Johnson indicates that
A. greater racial diversity exists among younger populations. B. both older and younger populations are racially diverse. C. age diversity could lead to pension problems. D. older populations are more racially diverse.
  5. According to the interview, religious diversity
A. was most evident between 1990 and 20
  00. B. exists among Muslim immigrants. C. is restricted to certain places in the US. D. is spreading to more parts of the country. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
  6. What is the main idea of the news item?
A. Sony developed a computer chip for cell phones. B. Japan will market its wallet phone abroad. C. The wallet phone is one of the wireless innovations. D. Reader devices are available at stores and stations. Question 7 and 8 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.
  7. Which of the following is mentioned as the government’s measure to control inflation?
A. Foreign investment. B. Donor support. C. Price control. D. Bank prediction.
  8. According to Kingdom Bank, what is the current inflation rate in Zimbabwe?
A. 20 million percent. B.
  2.2 million percent. C.
  11.2 million percent. D. Over
  11.2 million percent. Question 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
  9. Which of the following is CORRECT?
A. A big fire erupted on the Nile River. B. Helicopters were used to evacuate people. C. Five people were taken to hospital for burns. D. A big fire took place on two floors.
  10. The likely cause of the big fire is A. electrical short-cut. B. lack of fire-satefy measures.
C. terrorism. D. not known. PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet. TEXT A Still, the image of any city has a half-life of many years. (So does its name, officially changed in 2001 from Calcutta to Kolkata, which is closer to what the word sounds like in Bengali. Conversing in English, I never heard anyone call the city anything but Calcutta.) To Westerners, the conveyance most identified with Kolkata is not its modern subway?a facility whose spacious stations have art on the walls and cricket matches on television monitors?but the hand-pulled rickshaw. Stories and films celebrate a primitive-looking cart with high wooden wheels, pulled by someone who looks close to needing the succor of Mother Teresa. For years the government has been talking about eliminating hand-pulled rickshaws on what it calls humanitarian grounds?principally on the ground that, as the mayor of Kolkata has often said, it is offensive to see “one man sweating and straining to pull another man.” But these days politicians also lament the impact of 6,000 hand-pulled rickshaws on a modern city’s traffic and, particularly, on its image. “Westerners try to associate beggars and these rickshaws with the Calcutta landscape, but this is not what Calcutta stands for,” the chief minister of West Bengal, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, said in a press conference in 20
  06. “Our city stands for prosperity and development.” The chief minister?the equivalent of a state governor?went on to announce that hand-pulled rickshaws soon would be banned from the streets of Kolkata. Rickshaws are not there to haul around tourists. (Actually, I saw almost no tourists in Kolkata, apart from the young backpackers on Sudder Street, in what used to be a red-light district and is now said to be the single place in the city where the services a rickshaw puller offers may include providing female company to a gentleman for the evening.) It’s the people in the lanes who most regularly use rickshaws?not the poor but people who are just a notch above the poor. They are people who tend to travel short distances, through lanes that are sometimes inaccessible to even the most daring taxi driver. An older woman with marketing to do, for instance, can arrive in a rickshaw, have the rickshaw puller wait until she comes back from various stalls to load her purchases, and then be taken home. People in the lanes use rickshaws as a 24-hour ambulance service. Proprietors of cafés or corner stores send rickshaws to collect their supplies. (One morning I saw a rickshaw puller take on a load of live chickens?tied in pairs by the feet so they could be draped over the shafts and the folded back canopy and even the axle. By the time he trotted off, he was carrying about a hundred upside-down chickens.) The rickshaw pullers told me their steadiest customers are schoolchildren. Middle-class families contract with a puller to take a child to school and pick him up; the puller essentially becomes a family retainer. From June to September Kolkata can get torrential rains, and its drainage system doesn’t need
torrential rain to begin backing up. Residents who favor a touch of hyperbole say that in Kolkata “if a stray cat pees, there’s a flood.” During my stay it once rained for about 48 hours. Entire neighborhoods couldn’t be reached by motorized vehicles, and the newspapers showed pictures of rickshaws being pulled through water that was up to the pullers’ waists. When it’s raining, the normal customer base for rickshaw pullers expands greatly, as does the price of a journey. A writer in Kolkata told me, “When it rains, even the governor takes rickshaws.” While I was in Kolkata, a magazine called India Today published its annual ranking of Indian states, according to such measurements as prosperity and infrastructure. Among India’s 20 largest states, Bihar finished dead last, as it has for four of the past five years. Bihar, a couple hundred miles north of Kolkata, is where the vast majority of rickshaw pullers come from. Once in Kolkata, they sleep on the street or in their rickshaws or in a dera?a combination garage and repair shop and dormitory managed by someone called a sardar. For sleeping privileges in a dera, pullers pay 100 rupees (about $
  50) a month, which sounds like a pretty good deal until you’ve visited a dera. They gross between 100 and 150 rupees a day, out of which they have to pay 20 rupees for the use of the rickshaw and an occasional 75 or more for a payoff if a policeman stops them for, say, crossing a street where rickshaws are prohibited. A 2003 study found that rickshaw pullers are near the bottom of Kolkata occupations in income, doing better than only the ragpickers and the beggars. For someone without land or education, that still beats trying to make a living in Bihar. There are people in Kolkata, particularly educated and politically aware people, who will not ride in a rickshaw, because they are offended by the idea of being pulled by another human being or because they consider it not the sort of thing people of their station do or because they regard the hand-pulled rickshaw as a relic of colonialism. Ironically, some of those people are not enthusiastic about banning rickshaws. The editor of the editorial pages of Kolkata’s Telegraph?Rudrangshu Mukherjee, a former academic who still writes history books?told me, for instance, that he sees humanitarian considerations as coming down on the side of keeping hand-pulled rickshaws on the road. “I refuse to be carried by another human being myself,” he said, “but I question whether we have the right to take away their livelihood.” Rickshaw supporters point out that when it comes to demeaning occupations, rickshaw pullers are hardly unique in Kolkata. When I asked one rickshaw puller if he thought the government’s plan to rid the city of rickshaws was based on a genuine interest in his welfare, he smiled, with a quick shake of his head?a gesture I interpreted to mean, “If you are so naive as to ask such a question, I will answer it, but it is not worth wasting words on.” Some rickshaw pullers I met were resigned to the imminent end of their livelihood and pin their hopes on being offered something in its place. As migrant workers, they don’t have the political clout enjoyed by, say, Kolkata’s sidewalk hawkers, who, after supposedly being scaled back at the beginning of the modernization drive, still clog the sidewalks, selling absolutely everything?or, as I found during the 48 hours of rain, absolutely everything but umbrellas. “The government was the government of the poor people,” one sardar told me. “Now they shake hands with the capitalists and try to get rid of poor people.” But others in Kolkata believe that rickshaws will simply be confined more strictly to certain neighborhoods, out of the view of World Bank traffic consultants and California investment
delegations?or that they will be allowed to die out naturally as they’re supplanted by more modern conveyances. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, after all, is not the first high West Bengal official to say that rickshaws would be off the streets of Kolkata in a matter of months. Similar statements have been made as far back as 19
  76. The ban decreed by Bhattacharjee has been delayed by a court case and by a widely held belief that some retraining or social security settlement ought to be offered to rickshaw drivers. It may also have been delayed by a quiet reluctance to give up something that has been part of the fabric of the city for more than a century. Kolkata, a resident told me, “has difficulty letting go.” One day a city official handed me a report from the municipal government laying out options for how rickshaw pullers might be rehabilitated. “Which option has been chosen?” I asked, noting that the re



   为您收集整理。 本资料由 Jo 为您收集整理。 月英语四级考试真题 2010 年 6 月英语四级考试真题 "版权所有 "机密★启用前 试卷代号:A 大学英语四级考试 COLLEGE ENGLISH TEST -Band Four(4XSH 1) 试题册 注意事项 一、将自己的校名、姓名、准考证号写在答题卡 1 和答题卡 2 上,将本试卷代号划在答 题卡 2 上。 二、试题册、答题卡 1 和答题卡 2 均不得带出考场,考试结束,监考员收卷后考生才可 离开。 三、仔细读懂题目的说明。 四、在 ...


   本资料由学生范文网(http://www.xsfanwen.com)为您收集整理。 为您收集整理。 本资料由学生范文网 为您收集整理 2010 年 6 月英语四级考试真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes) 注意:此部分试题在答题卡 1 上。 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Due Attention Should Be ...


   听力课堂,开放式外语学习平台! 听力课堂,开放式外语学习平台!TingClass.com 2010 年 12 月大学英语六级考试模拟题一 月大学英语六级考试模拟题一 Part I Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Salary or Interest. You should write at least ...


   2010 年下半年商务英语中级考试高分复习攻略 商务英语证书(BEC)考试近年来被各类涉外企业、部门用来作为招收职员时英语能力的证明;同时也是商务 工作人员或英语学习者检验、提高英语水平的方式。由于很多即将进入职场的学生或已工作的青年把该证 书作为就业、求职的重要砝码,因此 BEC 考试也被称为“商务求职通行证”。 自 2002 年 5 月 BEC 考试采用新题型以来,BECVantage 阅读与 BECHigher 阅读相比,只是少了单词 填空这一部分,其余题型完全一致。然而要求在 1 小 ...


   弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 预测一 预测一 1. 现在大学校园里,迟到、早退、旷课是常见的现象 2. 保证学生的出勤率对大学教育的重要性 3. 作为一个大学生应该怎样做 Attend Your Classes Regularly Nowadays it is a very common phenomenon that some university students are late for or even absent from classe ...


   沪江英语 http://www.hjenglish.com/new/ 2009 年 6 月英语四级考试真题与答案 月英语四 Part I Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minute to write a short essay on the topic of students selecting their lectures. You should write at least 120 w ...


   2008 年 6 月英语四级考试真题 月英语四 Part 错误!未找到引用源。 Writing (30 minutes) Recreational Activities Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Apology according to the outline given below. You should write at least 120 words follow ...


   2010 年 12 月大学英语四级真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes) Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given ...


   2008 年 12 月大学英语四级考试真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes) ) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Limiting the Use of Disposable Plastic Bag. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given be ...


   外语下载中心 http://down.tingroom.com 2010 年 6 月英语四级真题 月英语四级真题?A 卷完整答案(题目在后) 卷完整答案(题目在后) 答案: 答案: 四级作文: 四级作文: 1、如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写 2、出现这个现象的原因是 3、为了改变这种状况,我认为 Due Attention Should Be Given to Spelling(上海昂立教育 阿古琳娜) 阿古琳娜) ( Nowadays fewer and fewer students ...



   写作中的 35 个有用的句型! !希望对大家六级作文有所帮助。 一、~~~ the + ~ est + 名词+ (that) + 主词+ have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) ~~~ the most + 形容词+ 名词+ (that) + 主词+ have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) 例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ev ...


   2009 2010 学年( 09同安区 2009-2010 学年(下)九年级质量检测 英 语 试 题 考试时间: (满分:150 分;考试时间:4 月 23 日下午 3:00?5:00) 满分: ) 考生须知: 考生须知: 本试卷分为两大部分,第一部分( 小题)为选择题, 本试卷分为两大部分,第一部分(1-75 小题)为选择题,考生将答案用 2B 铅笔填涂在答 题卡上;第二部分为非选择题, 毫米的黑色签字笔书写在答题卡上。 题卡上;第二部分为非选择题,请考生将答案用 0.5 毫米的黑色签字笔 ...


   完型填空( Test) 完型填空(Cloze Test)应试技巧 完型填空是测试考生语篇理解能力和词汇运用能力的 一种综合手段。做完型填空题, 一种综合手段。做完型填空题,考生必须具有扎实的语法基 础、比较牢固的词汇基础以及良好的语感。 比较牢固的词汇基础以及良好的语感。 1.做题步骤 1.做题步骤 1)通览全篇,分文体,定结构,知大意。 通览全篇,分文体,定结构,知大意。 做完型填空题,答题的关键在于准确理解短文的大意。 做完型填空题,答题的关键在于准确理解短文的大意。 要做到这一点,就要 ...


   2010 高考英语复习资料杂汇 注:这里的资料全部出自网上,比较杂乱,但很有用,望认真阅读,识记. 注意: 内部资料 注意保密 第一份资料完型填空技巧 第一份资料完型填空技巧 做完形填空题应从哪些方面入手? 1.首先要以很快的速度浏览全文,掌握文章的主旨,不要急于看选项.浏览全文时要重点了解文中所叙述的人物,时 间,地点,事件,即 who,when,where,what. 完形填空 命题的原则一般是第一句话不挖空,目的是使读者进入语境,因此一定要认真阅读这句话.例如:Why is a spa ...


   大学英语综合能力训练参考答案 大学英语综合能力训练参考答案 训练 Chapter One Listening Practice One Short Conversations C ADA CCD C Long Conversations BCD CBAB Passages CDB ABDC BAD Compound Dictation 1) between 2) common 3) understanding 4) prepare 5) bachelor's 6) generally 7) ...