2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I Use of English
Dnecclious: Read thc following text.Choose the bcsl word(s) for each numbcred blank.and mark[A],[B], [C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) In 1924 American' National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawhtore Plant near Chicago It hoped they would learn how stop-floor Egnting __1__ the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the“Hawhthome effect”the extremely inflentlcel ldea the veey__3__to bemg expenmented upon changed subjects’behavior The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plato.Accordmg to __5__of the cxpetmems.their.houriy output rose when hghtmg WaS increased . but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the expenment. __7__sometmg was changed.produchnty rose A(n) __8__ that they were bemg experimented upon seemed to be __9__t0 alterworkers' bchamor __10__ uself After several decades , the salile data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store j2 一 the descnpuons on record,no systematic __13__was foundthat lcvcls of produchxnty wererelated to changes in lighting It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the c~enments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happed.__15__,tighring was always changed on a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ , , a comparison with data for weeks whenthere was no expenmentation showed that output always went up On Monday, workers __19__to be duigent for the first few days of the week in any case,before __21__a plateau and then slackening off This suggests that the alleged” Hawthorne effect“is hard to ptn down
  1.[A] affected 2[A]at 3[A]Wuth [B]up [B]achieved [C]with [C]act [C]exlracted [D]Off [D]proof [D]restored workors productivity Instead,

  5.[A]reqtttrents 6[A]conclude 7[A]as faras
[B]perplexing [B]cxplanalions
[c]mischieous [C]accounts
[D]ambiguous [D]assements
[B]matter [B]for fearthat
[C]in casethat [D]so long as [C]sentiment [D]illusion

  10.[A]about 11[A]compared
  12.[A]contrary to
  15.[A]In contast
[B]expectation [B]excessive [B]for [C]on
[C]enough [D]by
[D]conveyed [D]pealliar to [D]source [D]wasleadmg
[B]consistent with [C]parallel with [B]guidance [B]enlightening [B]For example [B]accidentally [B]ceased [B]chrnbing [C]implication [C]retiable
[C]In consequence [D]As usual [D]suddenly
[C]unpredictably [C]started
[D]continued [D]hiting
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts . Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A] , [B] , [C]or[D].Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(40 points) Text 2 Over the past decade,thousands of patents have seen granled for what are called business methods.Amazon com received one for its“one-click”online payment systern Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One invenlor patented a tochnique for lying a box Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale hack on business-method patents, which have been controversial e,ver since they were first authorized 10 years ago In a movethat has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S court of Appeals for the federal ctrcuit sald it would usea particular case tO conduct a broad review of business-method patents. Inre Bijskl, as the case is known, is“a very big
deal”, says Dermis'D
Crouch of the University of Missoun
School of law.It “has the potential to elinate an entire class of patmts” Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pinhts to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite tha fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice. The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluste is wether it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling. The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme. Count that has nurrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reaction to the anti_patent trend at the supreme court” says Harole C wegner, a partend attorney and professor at aeorge Washington University Law School.
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to business [B] their connection with asset allocation [C] the possible restriction on their granting [D] the controversy over authorization
  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case? [A] Its rulling complies with the court decisions [B] It involves a very big business transaction [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S.
  28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Paro
  3)most probably means [A] loss of good will [B]increase of hostility [C]change of attitude [D] change of auiuled
  29.We learn from the last two pamgraphs that business-meihod Pateats [A] are immune to legal challenges [B] are of ten unnecessarily issued [C] lower the esteem for pateat holders [D] increase the incidence of risks
  30.Which of the following would bethe subject ofthe text? [A]A looming threat to bvamess-melhcd patents [B]Protection for business-method patent holders [C]A legal case regarding business-methodpatents [D] A prevailing tread against business-method patents Text 3 In his book The Tipping Poinl Malcohn aladuell aloues that social epidemics are dliven in largepart by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals,often calledin flu entials who are unusuall informed, persuasive, or we connect The idea is intuit ively compelling but it doesn't explain howideas actually spread. The supposed importance of inftuentials derives from a plansible sounding but largely untested theory untested thelry called the "tow-step flow of communication" Information
llows from the mediato the inftuentials and from then to ereryone else. Marke ters have embraced the two-step flow became it suggests that if they can just find and influence the in fluent ials, those select people will do most of the work for them Thetheory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of people was
wearing promoting or developing whaterver it is before anyone else paid attention Anecdotal
evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people call drivetrends In their recent work howeyer some researchers have come up with the finding that in fluentials
have far less impact on social epidemics than is genetally supposed In fact they don’t seem to be required of all The researchers' argument stems from a simple obserrating about social influence with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primanrilly a function of media not interpersonal influence-enen the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others Yet it is precisely these non-celebring influentials who according to the two-step-flow theoryare supposed to drive social enidemics by influcenciny their friends and colleagues directly .For a social epidemic to occur however each person so sffected must then influcence his or her own acquaintances,who must in turn influence theirs and so on and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential.If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant for example from the initial influential prove resistant, for example the casecade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people.
Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s abilify to influence others and their tendence to be

  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point the author intends to [A] analyze the consequences of social epid emics [B] discuss influentials’ funcition in spreading ideas [C] exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials

  32. The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory” [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems
[B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends [C] has won support from influentials [D] requires solid evidence for its validity

  33. what the researchers have observed recenty shows that [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public {D}most celebritiea enjoy wide media attention

“these people”in
4 refers to the
ones who
{A}stay outside the network of social influence {B}have little contact with the source of influence {C}are {D} are influenced and then influence others influenced by the initial influential

  34.what is the essential slement in the dynamics of social influence? {A}The eageiness to be accepted {B}The impulse to influence others {C}The resdiness to be influenced {D}The inclination to rely on others
Text 4 Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public .Behind eht scenes,they
have been taking aim at someone else the accounting standard-setters.Their rules,moan the banks,have forced them to report enormous losses,and it’s just not fair.These rules say they must value some assets at the price atheird party would pay,not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch. Unfortunately,banks’lobbying now seems to be working.The details may be unknowable,but the independence of standard-setters,essential to the proper functioning of capital marksts,is being
compromised.And,unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers,reviving the banking system will be difficult.After a bruising encounter with Xongress.America;s Financial Accounting Standards Board(FASB)rushed through rule changse.These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long0term assets in their income statement.Bob Herz,the FASB’s chairman,cried out against ehose who ”question our motives.”Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls”the
use of judgment by management.” European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards
Board(IASB)do likewise.The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning,but the pressure to fold when it comletes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong Charlie McCreevy,a European commissioner,warned the IASB that is did”not live in a political vacuum”but”in the real word” and the Europe could yet develop different rules. It was banks that were on the wrong planet,with accouts htat wastly overvalued assets.today they argue htat market prices overstate loeees,because htey Largerly reflect the temporary illiquldity of markets,not the likely entent of bad debts.The truth will not be known for years.But bank’s shares trade below their book value,suggeting that investors are akeptical.And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses,yet are relucaant to buy all those supposed bargains. To get the sysytem working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with.America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that,cleaning up rules on stock options ang pensions,for example,against hostility interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions.

  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to [A]follow anfavorable asset evaluation rules [B]collect payments from third parties [C]cooperate with t



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