今年的讲座名为"Paralinguistic Features of Languages",主题是辅助语言学,对于英语专业的学生来说, 这个话题或许没有专门学过,但并不陌生.讲座类的内容非常突出的特点就是逻辑性强,思路很清晰, 所以在听音频做笔记的时候,要特别注意总起性质的句子.一般来说 lecture 的第一段会对接下来的内 容做总结介绍,如果下文划分成若干个小类别,会概括性地提到这些类别,然后在后文进行详细的例 证,再分类.第一段对给考生一个宏观性的思路非常重要,听漏掉一两点也没关系,下文必然会重新 提到. 本次真题的听力原文如下,注意文章中标粗的部分,是记笔记的重点部分: Paralinguistic features of languages Good morning, everyone. Today we'll continue our discussion on describing language. Last week we examined such features of language as grammar, vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc. In this lecture, we'll look at another important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this important aspect of language. Let me tell you. It refers to features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar and vocabulary. They are called 'paralinguistic features of language'. These features fall into two broad categories: those that involve voice and those that involve the body. Now, the first category, is what we call vocal paralinguistic features. Vocal features are actually tones of voice. While they are, perhaps, not central to meaning in communication in the same way as grammar or vocabulary, they may, nevertheless, convey attitude or intention in some way. Let me give you some examples. The first is whispering, which indicates the needs for secrecy. The second is breathiness. This is to show deep emotion. The third is huskiness, which is to show unimportants. The fourth is nasality. This is to indicate anxiety. The last is extra lip-rounding, which expresses greater intimacy, expecially with babies, for example. So we can see that there are a number of ways of altering our tone of voice. And when we do this consciously, we do it to create different effects in communication. Now, let's come to the second category, physical paralinguistic features, which involves the body. In addition to convey meanings with tone of voice, we can also express our intentions through the ways in which we use our bodies. You may ask: what are the ways, then? Let me sight some brief examples. The expression on our
face, the gestures we make and even proximity or way we sit, are some of the ways we send powerful messages. About how we feel, or what we mean. Let me explain some of these in more detail. First, facial expression. Facial expression is a powerful conveyer of meaning. We all know smiling is an almost universal signal of pleasure or welcome. But there are other facial expressions that may not be so common. For instance, raising eye-brows - suggest that you are surprised or interested in something. Other facial actions, such as biting your lip, which indicates that you are deep in thinking, or are uncertain about something; compressing the lips, which show that you are making decisions; and a visible clenching of the teeth, to show that you are angry, are all powerful conveyers of meaning, too. The second in this category is gesture. You see, we use gesture to indicate a wide range of meanings. Though I have to emphasize that the actual gestures we use may be specific to particular cultures. That is to say different cultures have their own favorite gestures in conveying meaning. Here, a few examples may show you how powerful gestures can be. In British English behavior, shrugging shoulders may indicate an attitude of 'I don't care', or 'I don't know'. Crossing your arms may indicate relaxation. But it can also powerfully show you are bored. Waving can mean welcome and farewell. While scratching your head may indicate that you are at a loss. In other cultures, placing your hand upon your heart is to indicate that you are telling the truth. Pointing your finger at your nose means it's a secret. That's why we say that gestures are culture bound. The third is proximity, posture and echoing. Proximity refers to the physical distance between speakers. This can indicate a number of things and can also be used to consciously send messages about intent. Closeness, for example, indicates intimacy or threat to many speakers. But distance may show formality, or lack of interest. Once again, I'd like to say, proximity is also both a matter of personal style, and is often culture bound. So, what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another. And standing close to someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party, but completely out of place in other situations, such as a meeting with a superior. Next, posture. Posture means the way in which someone holds his or her body, especially the back, shoulders and head, when standing, walking or sitting. A few examples. Hunched shoulders and a hanging head give a powerful indication of whether the person is happy or not. A lowered head when speaking to a superior, with or without eye contact can convey the appropriate relationship in some cultures. On the other hand, direct level eye contact, changes the nature of interaction, and can been seen as either open or challenging. Last, echoing. Now, what is echoing? Let me start with an example. Some of you may have noticed this phenomenon in your experience. When two people are keen to agree each other, they would likely, though unconsciously adopt the same posture, as if an imitation of each other. They sit or stand in the same manor. When used in this way, echoing appears to complement the verbal communication. Of course, when such imitation is carried out consciously, it often indicates that someone is marking at another speaker. Ok, in today's lecture, we looked at some paralinguistic features, such as tone of voice, gesture and posture. These features, together with linguistic features of language, like grammar, or vocabulary, are all part of the way we communicate with each other in face to face encounters. In our next lecture, we'll watch some video material, and see how people actually use paralinguistic means in communication to express their intention or desire or mood. 整理一下,整篇文章的要点非常清晰: I. Vocal Paralinguistic Features
  1. whispering- the needs for secrecy
  2. breathiness- deep emotion
  3. huskiness- unimportants
  4. nasality- anxiety
  5. extra lip-rounding- greater intimacy II. physical paralinguistic features
  1. facial expression- powerful conveyer of meaning. --e.g.1 smiling: pleasure or welcome --e.g.2 raising eye-brows: surprised or interested in something --e.g.3 biting your lip:deep in thinking/ uncertain about something
--e.g.4 compressing the lips: making decisions --e.g.5 clenching of the teeth: angry
  2. gesture- culture bound --e.g.1 shrugging shoulders: 'I don't care', or 'I don't know' --e.g.2 crossing your arms: relaxation/ bored --e.g.3 waving: welcome and farewell --e.g.4 scratching your head: at a loss --e.g.5 placing your hand upon your heart: telling the truth --e.g.6 pointing your finger at your nose: it's a secret
  3. proximity, posture and echoing
  1). proximity: personal style & culture bound --e.g.1 closeness: intimacy, threat --e.g.2 distance: fomality, lack of interest
  2). posture: the way in which someone holds his or her body --e.g.1 Hunched shoulders and a hanging head: happy or not --e.g.2 A lowered head, eye contact: the appropriate relationship --e.g.3 direct level eye contact: open or challenging
  3). echoing: to complement the verbal communication 运用各种自己熟悉的笔记符号,将上述列表中的内容快速记下来,只可以更少,不能更多.很多学生 在考场上抱着贪多的心理,事无巨细均想记录,反而在不停笔中错过了该要记住的要点. 2010 年专八真题听写参考答案 1 tones of voice 2 huskiness 3 universal signal; 4 thought or uncertainty 5 indifference 6 honesty 7 distance; 8 situation; 9 mood; 10 unconsciously same posture 年专八考试权威答案, 特邀著名国内英语考试郑家顺教授分享 2010 年专八考试权威答案,以下为听力部分
  1. C
  2. A
  3. D
  4. A
  5. C
  6. B
  7.C
  8. D
  9. D
  10. A
  11.A
  12.C
  13.B
  14.A
  15.D
  16.C
  17.C
  18.A
  19.D
  20.B
  21. A
  22.B
  23. B
  24.B
  25. C
  26.A
  27.D
  28.D
  29.A
  30.C 2010 年专八真题改错原文 So far as we can tell, all human languages are equally complete and perfect as instruments of communication: that is, every language appears to be as well equipped as any other to say the things its speakers want to say. It may or may not be appropriate to talk about primitive peoples or cultures, but that is another matter. Certainly, not all groups of people are equally competent in nuclear physics or psychology or the cultivation of rice or the engraving of Benares brass. But this is not the fault of their language. The Eskimos can speak about snow with a great deal more precision and subtlety than we can in English, but this is not because the Eskimo language (one of those sometimes miscalled 'primitive') is inherently more precise and subtle than English. This example does not bring to light a defect in English, a show of unexpected 'primitiveness'. The position is simply and obviously that the Eskimos and the English live in different environments. The English language would be just as rich in terms for different kinds of snow, presumably, if the environments in which English was habitually used made such distinction important. Similarly, we have no reason to doubt that the Eskimo language could be as precise and subtle on the subject of motor manufacture or cricket if these topics formed part of the Eskimos' life. For obvious historical reasons, Englishmen in the nineteenth century could not talk about motorcars with the minute discrimination which is possible today: cars were not a part of their culture. But they had a host of terms for horse-drawn vehicles which send us, puzzled, to a historical dictionary when we are reading Scott or Dickens. How many of us could distinguish between a chaise, a landau, a victoria, a brougham, a coupe, a gig, a diligence, a whisky, a calash, a tilbury, a carriole, a phaeton, and a clarence?
2010 年专八真题改错参考答案 1 be 后插入 as; 2 their 改为 its; 3 There 改为 It; 4 Whereas 改为 But 5 further 改为 much 6 come 改 为 bring; 7 similar 改为 different; 8 will 改为 would; 9 as important 去掉 as; 10 the part 去掉 the 2010 年专八真题人文知识参考答案 31,D;32,A;33,D;34,A;35,C; 36,D;37,A;38,A;39,C;40,B. 2010 年专八真题汉译英参考答案 Friends tend to become more intimated if they have the same interests and temper, they can get along well and keep contacting; otherwise they will separate and end the relationship. Friends who are more familiar and closer can not be too casual and show no respect. Otherwise the harmony and balance will be broken, and the friendship will also be nonexistent any more. Everyone hopes to have his own private space, and if too casual among friends, it is easy to invade this piece of restricted areas, which will lead to the conflict, resulting in alienation. It may be a small matter to be rude to friends; however, it is likely to plant the devastating seeds. The best way to keep the close relationship between friends is to keep contacts with restraint, and do not bother each other. 2010 年专八真题英译汉参考答案 我想那是五月的一个周日的早晨;那天是复活节,一个大清早上.我站在自家小屋的门口.就在 我的面前展现出了那么一番景色,从我那个位置其实能够尽收眼底,可是梦里的感觉往往如此,由于 梦幻的力量,这番景象显得超凡出尘,一派肃穆气象.群山形状相同,其山脚下都有着同样可爱的山 谷;不过群山挺然参天,高于阿尔卑斯峰,诸山相距空旷,丰草如茵,林地开阔,错落其间; 树篱上 的白玫瑰娟娟弥望;远近看不见任何生物,唯有苍翠的教堂庭院里,牛群静静地卧躺在那片郁郁葱葱 的墓地歇息,好几头围绕着一个小孩的坟墓.我曾对她一腔柔情,那年夏天是在旭日东升的前一刻, 那孩子死去了,我如同当年那样望着牛群. 2010 年专八真题作文参考答案 The important role of a city's local conditions in the urban design Recently there is a hot debate on a report that a foreign design company invited by a little-known mountainous area in Guiyang provided a design without paying too much attention to the city's unique characteristics. Some people appreciate the bold innovation of the design but others do not like it. In my opinion, any urban design should take the city's original cultural heritage into account. The designers should suit their design to local conditions and try to take advantage of the local resources. First, a city's regional characteristics or local cultural heritage are its symbol, its identity. In a mountainous area, too many unconventional, super-futuristic buildings will not be compatible with the city's landscapes. Without these landscapes, it is just another so called modern city composed of concrete and steel. Take Beijing for example. In the past few years, Beijing has been removing a large number of such alley
 

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