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2010 中考英语动词整理
(一) 知识概要 动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分。 它的语法现象也较多, 但在初中范围主要有以下几 方面问题。① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在完成时,过去完成时, 将来时与过去将来时六种时态。② 语态:主动语态与被动语态。③ 助动词和情态动词。④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在分词的用法。时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用 要点和习惯用法。
  1、一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限制的客观存 在和真理。 Matter exists in three states 物质有三态。 如: 又如: The earth moves around the sun ? ② 表示习惯性和经常发生的动作,如:I often go to bed at 9∶30③ 在时间、条件等状语 从句中表示将来要发生的动作,如:As soon as I get there I'll telephone you.
  2、一般过去时:① 主要用于表达过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,如:I was ill last week? ② 过去经常发生的动作或习惯性动作,如:I used to get up at six.
  3、一般将来时:用于表示将要发生的动作,其构成方式① 用will (shall)+动词原形来 表达将来在某一时间内要发生,或经常、将要发生的动作或状态,如:School will begin on Sepember 1st? ② 用 be going to+动词原形,用来表示不久将要发生或打算去作的动作。 如:?I'm? going to swim this afternoon? ③ be+现在分词,也就是用某些动词的现在进行时表 示将来, ?I'm? coming。 如: 这些动词只限于: come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, get go, to 等动词。④ 在状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。
  4、现在进行时:用于表示现在正在进行的动作,如:What are you doing now?要注意的 是表示状态,情感的某些词没有现在进行时,这些动词有:like, have (有),love, know, understand, remember, forget, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, wish hope, expect…
  5、 过去将来时: 用来表达从过去某时间点上看将要发生的动作, 如: He told me he would come to my party?
  6、现在完成时与过去完成时:现在完成时的两个用处是:① 用来表达在过去开始的 动作持续到现在,如:I've studied English for two years? ② 用来表达过去发生的事但它影响 到现在,如:I haven't had my breakfast. so I'm hungry now? 现在完成时与过去完成时的区别 在于动作的截止时间, 现在完成时所表达的动作截止于现在, 而过去完成时所表达的动作截 止于过去。如:I haven't seen my old teacher for a long time? 我好久未见到我过去的老师了。 是指到目前截止。 如果加上一句话, 则将变为过去完成时, Yesterday I saw my old teacher. 如: I hadn't seen him for a long time. 因为我好久未见他这一情况截止于昨天。还要注意的一个问 题是截止性动词可以有完成时, 但不能与表示一段时间的状语连用, When I got to school, 如: the class had begun? 如果一定要讲开始几分钟了则要换用表示状态,或延续性动词,如: When I got to school, the class had been on for five minutes??语态: 英语中只有主动语态与被动 语态之分。主动语态,句子中的主语是动作的执行者,如:I broke the window? 而被动语态 句子中的主语是主动语态句子中的宾语,如:The window was broken by me? 被动语态主要 用于,动作的执行者不明确,或没有必要说出来,如:The New building was built last week?
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关键要注意的是在主动语态中有省略不定式符号 to 的动词,在被动语态要还原,如: 主动 语态 I saw him come in.被动语态 He was seen to come in. 助动词和情态动词:助动词本身没有词义,它只不过与实义动词一起构成谓语动词,形成了 时态、语态、构成了疑问句,否定句,以及用来加强语气。而情态动词则表达一种可能、必 要、允许、愿望、猜测……的意图、倾向。也用来表示语气的委婉和祝愿。初中阶段主要有: can, could, may, might, will, would, must (have to), shall, should。 ?最后要谈论的是非谓语动词, 非谓语动词分为不定式,和动词的 ing 形式,(即现在分词和动名词)。虽然在初中范围,这 一项不是语法重点,但还是要花一定时间去学习,为的是打下良好的基础。为进一步学习提 供良好的条件。不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语。如:To see is to believe.(百闻不如 一见) He want to see a film? 还可以作补足语,如:He wants me to leave.也可以作状语,如: I come here to learn English.?动名词也可以起到上述作用,如:Seeing is believing. I like swimming very much. 而现在分词多用于作定语、 补足语、 状语, 如: The girl driving a car is her sister.(定语) Did you notice his hand shaking?(宾语补足语) Hearing the noise, we stopped talking.(状语) (二) 正误辨析 [误] She laid down and soon fell asleep. [正] She lay down and soon fell asleep. [析] 考试中常出现的是易混动词 lay 放,lie 躺,lie 说谎。它们的过去时、过去分 词和现在分词变化如下: lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物动词) lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物动词) lie (说谎) lied, lied, lying [误] Please rise your hand. [正] Please raise your hand. [析] rise 是不及物动词,其后不能接宾语,如:The sun rises in the east.而 raise 是 及物动词。 [误] I like to swim very much, but I don't like swimming this afternoon. [正] I like swimming very much, but I don't like to swim this afternoon. [析] like 作为"喜欢"讲时,可以接动名词也可以接不定式,但接动名词时多表达一 种习惯性动作。而接不定式则侧重于表达一次性、特殊性的动作。? 但要注意的是 like 与
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would 连用时则一定要接不定式,如:Would you like to go with me?? 再有一点要注意的是, like 作为介词"像"讲时,只能用分词作其宾语。 [误] Stop! Did you listen to a strange voice? [正] Stop! Did you hear a strange voice? [析] hear 的侧重点是听到、听见什么,而 listen to 的侧重点为听的倾向,如:listen! Do you hear someone calling help?这样的词还有 look 与 see。 它们的侧重点也不同, look 重于 "看"的倾向,而 see 重于看见没看见。 [误] Did you watch some film recently? [正] Did you see some film recently? [析] 英语中 see 与 watch 各有不同的用处,see 用于看电影、剧目,而 watch 用作 看电视和看球赛。 [误] Look. A beautiful lamp hanged from the ceiling. [正] Look. A beautiful lamp hung from the ceiling. [析] hang 有两个含义,① "挂",它的过去时与过去分词是 hung, hung;② "绞刑", 这时它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词则为 hanged, hanged。 [误] How long can I borrow this book? [正] How long can I keep this book? [析] "借"在英文中有三个词,① 借入,即 borrow,如:May I borrow some books from the library?② 借出,如:I can lend my bike to you.③ 借多久要用 keep, 因为 borrow 与 lend 都是截止性动词,而 keep 是延续性动词。如 How long can I keep it? [误] We have won your class. [正] We have beaten your class. [析] win 是及物动词,其后面的宾语应是比赛、战争、奖品、奖金。而 beat 的宾语, 应是人、队、班级等等,如:We won the game. [误] I left my key. [正] I forgot my key.
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[正] I left my key at home. [析] leave 是"丢下",其后一定要接地点状语,而 forget 其后不要接地点状语。 [误] Oh! It's raining outside. Please bring the rain coat with you. [正] Oh! It's raining outside. Please take this rain coat with you. [析] bring 为"带来"如:Next time bring your little sister here.而 take 为"带走",fetch 为"去某处取什么回来", Please fetch some coffee for us?? 要熟记的是在初中课文中与 take 如: 有关的词组,如:? take away 拿走 take back 收回 take down 取下?take off 脱下 take…out 拿出 take place 发生? take hold of 拿住 take part in 参加 take a seat 坐下?take one's place 替代 take a look 看看 take one's turn 轮流? take a message 捎信 take care of 照看 take it easy 别着急?take one's time 慢慢来 take one's temperature 测量体温 [误] The policeman reached his gun. [正] The policeman reached for his gun. [析] reach 作"到达"讲时是及物动词,如:I reached the hotel at 8∶30?但作"伸手去 拿",则要用 reach for something。作为"到达"讲时还有 arrive (in+大地方)(at+较小的地方)和 get to.要注意的是与 get 有关的词组有:? get back 回来 get in 收割 get into 进入 get off 下 车? get on 上车 get out 出去 get up 起床 get to 到达? get ready for=be ready for ? get on well with 与人相处融洽? get 加比较级为变得如何,例如:? get colder and colder. [误] This dictionary spent me five dollars. [正] This dictionary cost me five dollars. [析] 英文中的"花费"有 4 个 spend, cost, take 和 pay,其中 spend 与 pay 所在句中的 主语应为人,如: I spent two hours in doing my homework. I paid five dallars for the book.而 cost 与 take 的主语则 是事物,如:It takes me two years to finish this book. [误] In summer I always sleep with the windows opened. [正] In summer I always sleep with the windows open. [正] I always sleep with the windows closed. [析] 要注意 open 是动词也是形容词,而 close 则要用其过去分词作形容词。? [误] Please wait a minute. I'm having on my clothes.
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[正] Please wait a minute. I'm putting on my clothes. [析] 英语中的穿衣服要分状态, 是什么样的穿着打扮, 还是穿衣服的动作两类动词。 表示穿着状态的词有 have on, wear,在用法上 have on 不宜用进行时态, 它多用一般时态, 如: She has on a new school dress. 而 wear 则多用进行时来表示状态,如:She is wearing a new sweater.在表示动作的词中 put on 是常用的一词。dress 用作动词当"穿衣"讲时其后宾语不应 接衣物,而要接人,如:My children were very young they couldn't dress themselves.在表示穿 着状态时用其过去分词当形容词,如:He is dressed in white. [误] My computer can't begin. Could you find someone to help me? [正] My computer can't start. Could you find someone to help me? [析] begin 与 start 均可指"开始",而且常常可以互换,如:School begins (starts) at 8 a. m. 但是在两种情况下不宜用 begin 而要用 start, ① 当作机器开动、发动讲,如:My car can't start. There must be something wrong with it.② 作为"旅途开始"讲, 如: should have to We start early. There was a lot of traffic on the road.
[误] I'm very glad because I have founded my lost key. [正] I'm very glad because I have found my lost key. [析] find 是不规则动词,它的过去式和过去分词是 found, found,而 found 又是另 外一词"建立",它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词是 founded founded, 如:The People's Republic of China was founded in 19
  49. [误] Please. Let's speak in English. [正] Please. Let's speak English. [正] Please. Let's talk in English. [误] Can you speak it English? [正] Can you say it in English? [析] 英文中"说"有 4 个常用词 say, tell, speak, talk.其中不及物动词有 speak 和 talk, 如:I want to talk with you.We are talking about the new film.而 speak 其后接语言时是及物动 词, 其他情况是不及物动词。 与 tell 是及物动词, say 其中 tell 常用双宾语, Tell us a story. 如: 但用于讲实话或谎话时也用单宾语。如: Tell the truth. [误] Can you say Japanese from Chinese?
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[正] Can you tell Japanese from Chinese? [析] tell…from 为固定词组,即分辨两者的不同。 [误] Excuse me, did I step on your foot? [正] Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot? [析] excuse me 用于未打扰对方前,以提醒对方注意的用语,而 sorry 则是由于自己 已做的事向对方道歉。 [误] Would you care for to swim with us? [正] Would you care to swim with us? [析] care for 后接不定式时,要省略 for,或换用名词,如:Would you care for a cup of tea. care for 作"照顾"讲时与 look after 相同。在初中阶段学习与 for 有关的词组有: ask for 请求 call for 接人,请人 care for 关心? go in for 从事 answer for 负责 look for 寻找 wait for
 

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