2010 中考英语总复习 4 词法形容词副词
四, 形容词,副词 (一) 知识概要 形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语中修饰可数名词和不可数名 词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别加以注意.下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修 饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下: many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough.而修饰不可数名 词的词或词组如下:much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of.其中 some, no, a lot of, plenty of 既可修饰可数名 词又可修饰不可数名词.英语中形容词与副词有原级,比较级,最高级之分, 其规则如下: 构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级 加 er,或 est Tall young taller younger tallest youngest 只加 r 或 st nice large nicer larger nicest largest 重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加 er,est big fat hot bigger fatter hotter biggest fattest hottest 不规则变化的形容词或副词: 原 级 比较级 最高级 good better best Well better best bad worse worst badly worse worst many more most
most more most little less lest far farther further farthest furthest old older elder oldest eldest 要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词, back, all, alone, either, far, high, 如: slow 等.而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规律如下: 构词法 形容词 副 词 一般加 ly Careful kind carefully kindly 尾是 y 时将 y 变成 i 加 ly Happy busy easy Happily busily easily 其 他 true terrible full possible shy whole truly terribly fully possibly shyly wholly 在学习过程中要注意其变化. 此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词.能修饰比较级的有: much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和 a little. 能修饰最高级的 有:the very, much the, far 等.
(二) 正误辨析 [误] The young likes playing football very much. [正] The young like playing football very much. [析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待.而定冠词加形容词表示抽 象事物时则要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并 不总代表善良. [误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over. [正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over. [析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束."用定冠词加最高级形容 词作主语时应看作单数形式. [误] It is the gold age of the young. [正] It is the golden age of the young. [析] golden 在英语中多用于比喻,如:golden hair 金发,gulden voice 金 嗓子.而 gold 多用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar 金条,a gold coin 金币, 但 gold fish 金鱼例外. [误] She is a warm heart woman. [正] She is a warm hearted woman. [析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词,加名词加 ed 构成,如: warm hoarted 热心肠的,white haired 白毛的 [误] There is an alive fish in the pool. [正] There is a living fish in the pool. [析] 在初中范围内所学到的以 a 字母开头的形容词一般不能作定语,只能作 表语. The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有: 如: alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake 等. [误] The ill man nearly died. [正] The sick man nearly died. [析] ill 一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用 sick,但作表语时则都可以. 如:He is ill sick, ill 作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好) [误] I have important something to tell you. [正] I have something important to tell you. [析] 不定代词 something, anyone, somebody…在用形容词修饰时,形容词 应放其后.但要注意 thing 则不是不定代词,不符合上述规律.如:I have an important thing to tell you. [误] I'll be free on next Sunday. [正] I'll be free next Sunday. [析] 在表达将来时的时候: next Sunday, next week, next year 或 last Sunday last week, last year 前都不加介词. [误] The girl is two year old. [正] The girl is two years old. [正] She is a two year old girl [析] 由连字符连接若干名词,数词……组成的形容词,在学习时要记住两点, 其一是这些词中的名词都不要用复数形式,如:two thousand word report(两千字的报告); 其二是这样构成的形容词只能作定语, 即用于名词之前,
而不能作表语. [误] The foreigners like those little beautiful Chinese paintings. [正] The foreigners like those beautiful little Chinese paintings. [析] 在名词前若有几个形容词作修饰语时,其顺序如下.
  1. 指示代词,定冠词
  2. 数量词
  3. 性质词
  4. 大小
  5. 形状
  6. 老少,新 旧
  7. 颜色
  8. 材料 但要注意的是英语的习惯是一个名词前的形容词一般不要多于三个. 如: What a pretty little white horse! Those first few short English stories were not difficult to understand. [误] The best way to learn English good is to speak with Englishman every day. [正] The best way to learn English well is to speak with Englishman every day. [析] good 是形容词,这里是修饰动词 speak 的,所以应用副词 well,但 well 作形容词讲时只作身体好.如:He is well.(他身体很好).He is good.(他是 个好人). [误] The children play on the grass nappyly. [正] The children play on the grass happily [析] 多音节 y 结尾的形容词变为副词时应将 y 变为 i 再加 ly. [误] The teacher looked angry at the students. [正] The teacher looked angrily at the students. [析] 英语中感观动词后面要接形容词,这时它是修饰主语的,如:The food smells good.食物闻起来很香.The teacher looked angry 老师看起来很生气. 而此句的意思为:"老师生气地看着学生",所以应用副词形式. [误] He worked with me friendly. [正] He was friendly to me. [析] 不是所有结尾是 ly 的词都是副词,但 friendly 是形容词,这样的词还 有 lovely, lonely, costly, lively…monthly weekly….但其中有些词既是 副词,又是形容词,如:early, hourly, monthly… [误] You can speak free in front of your friends. [正] You can speak freely in front of your friends. [析] free 作为形容词意为"自由的,有空闲的,免费的".作为副词讲则是" 免费"之意.而 freely 作为副词则是"自由的,随便的".这些要注意的词还有: hard 努力, 艰苦 hardly 几乎不 late 迟, 晚 lately 最近的, 最新的 near 近 nearly 几乎 like 像 likely 几乎 [误] They must have arrived till now. [正] They must have arrived by now. [析] by now 是用于表达到目前为止某一动作已经发生,所以应用瞬间动词. 而 till now 是强调某一动作一直持续到现在, 所以一定要用持续性动词. must have+过去分词是对过去某一事情所作的肯定推测. [误] Someone called you right now.
[正] Someone called you just now. [析] just now 有两个意思,其一是"刚才",其二是"现在",而 right now 只 能用于现在的状态.just 则用于完成时态,如: I have just finished my homework. [误] My father will be back from America at present. [正] My father will be back from America presently. [析] presently 有两个意思:其一是最近,不久,其二在美语中是现在之意, 与 at present 相同.而 for the present 为暂时,如: I teach English in the school for the present. [误] I'll be back at the moment. [正] I'll be back in a moment. [析] at the moment 其意为"现在,当时",而 in a moment 意为"马上过一会 ",与 in a minute 意思相近. [误] The train from Shanghai will arrive here in time. [正] The train from Shanghai will arrive here on time. [析] on time 为"准时", in time 有两个含意. 而 其一是"及时", The doctor 如: arrived in time.其二是"将来,终究". [误] I met an old friend sometimes last month. [正] I met an old friend sometime last month. [析] Sometime 过去,或者将来某时. Sometimes 有时 如: Sometimes I go to school by bus. Some time 一些时间 如: I need sometime to do my homework. Some times 几次 如: I went to Shanghai sometimes this month. at times 有时,偶尔 at all times 经常 some other time 改天 [误] I had met an old friend three days ago. [正] I had met an old friend three days before. [正] I met an old friend three days ago. * ago 用在时间状语中时,主句中谓语动词一般用过去时,而 before 用于时间 状语时则主句的谓语动词宜用完成时态. [误] He studied very hard. and at the end he passed the exam. [正] He studied very hard, and in the end he passed the exam. [析] in the end=at last 意为"最终,终于",表达经过若干努力而达到的 结果.而 at the end 是在某事的结束时如何如何,如:At the end of class, the teacher gave us some story books. [误] I will come here to help you each three days. [正] I will come here to help you every three days. [析] every three days 为"每三天",即每隔二天,而 every other day 为每 隔一天. [误] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday. and I didn't go, too. [正] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday and I didn't go either. [析] 英语中表示"也",有 4 个字,also, as well, too, either,但 either 用于否定句中,而前 3 个用于肯定句中.在肯定句中 too 与 as well 一般要用在
句尾,而 also 则可用于句中.如:She went to the party and her boy friend went there too. 又如: I've also read her other novels. [误] We should help the poor girl in anyway. [正] We should help the poor girl in any way. [析] anyway 为"不管怎么"讲,"无论如何",如:What a terrible accident, anyway no one was hurt. any way 为"任何方式".这种常见的错误还发生在以下几组词中,如: everyday 日常的 every day 每天 faraway 遥远的 far away 远离 altogether 总计 all together 一块,大家一起 already 已经 all ready 全准备好了 [误] You can come to the doctor's at anytime. [正] You can come to the doctor's at any time. [析] anytime 是副词 而 any time 中的 time 是名词. [误] She said nearly nothing. [正] She said almost nothing. [析] nearly 与 almost 的含意相近,在很多场合可以互换,但在否定词前用 almost. [误] There are too much mistakes in your homework. [正] There are too many mistakes in your homework. [析] too much 后接不可数名词, There is too much water for the flowers. 如: 而 too many 后加可数名词,much too 后面加形容词,如:It is much too difficult to learn English well. [误] It is late enough that we can go home now. [正] It is late enough for us to go home now. [析] 要注意的是 enough 后面一般不接从句而接不定式, 或不定式的复合结构: for somebody to do something. [误] The twins are very alike. [正] The twins are much alike. [析] 用 a 为首字母的形容词不能用 very 修饰,一般要用 much 来修饰. [误] - How long does he write to his parents? - Once a week. [正] - How often does he write to his parents? - Once a week. [析] 英文与中文表达法不同,隔多长时间办一次某事,实际上问的是该事发 生的频率,所以要用 how often. [误] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call up you. [正] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call you up. [析] 当动词词组的宾语是人称代词时则一定要放于动词之后,如果是名词则 可以放在词组其后.如:I want to watch TV. Please turn on the TV. 也 可以讲: Please turn the TV on. [误] He drove quickly his new car. [正] He drove his new car quickly. [析] 副词在句中的位置很活,但主要有以下几种用法:①实意动词之前,如:
He quickly give me the answer. ② 在 be 动词之后,如:The little boy is often late for class. ③ 第一助动词之后,如:This book has almost been finished. ④ 在单独使用的 be 动词和助动词之前,如: Can you help me this afternoon? I certainly can.但是无论如何也不能将副词置于动词与宾语 之间,如果是宾语从句或是很长的名词 词组作宾语则才可以这样用: He heard clearly what the teacher said. [误] The children came late yesterday to the cinema. [正] The children came late to the cinema yesterday. [析] 表示一定长度的时间的副词不应放于句中,可放于句尾.如果表示强调 则可放于句首. [误] You have few new books, haven't you? [正] you have few new books, have you? [析] 英语中的数量形容词有两组.修饰可数名词的有 few(很少,几乎没有), a few(有一些,几个);修饰不可数名词的有 little (很少,几乎没有),a little(有一点,有一些).要注意的是当 few 和 little 用于句中时应看作否定 句,而 a few 和 a little 用于句中时则应看作是肯定句. [误] He spent quite little money on his food. [正] He spent quite a little money on his food. [析] quite a 为一固定用法,其意为"十分,相当,所以". quite a few= many, quite a little=much 而 only a little=little, only a few=few. [误] Do you want to have many bread? [正] Do you want to have some bread? [析] some 与 any 都可以用作形容词,副词或代词,在一般情况下,some 用于 肯定句,any 用于疑问句和否定句,但在希望得到肯定答复时,应用 some. 其 次是 some 可以用来修饰可数名词和不可数名词. [误] Please tell me where the shoes shop is? [正] Please tell me where the shoe shop is. [析] 在用名词作修饰词来修饰另一名词时,这个
 

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