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2011 大学英语四级考试语法笔记(下)
  5. 以上句型可以转换成以下形式:
  1)条件状语从句省略 if:在书面语中,如果条件状语从句的谓语中有 were, had 或 should, 就可以 省略 if, 并将 were, had 或 should 放到句首, 谓语主语之前, “Were/Had/Should + 主语”的形式。 用 这种虚拟语气在意义上与带 if 的条件状语从句相同。当然,如果从句没有 were, had, 或 should,就不能 省略 if. Now let’s look at some examples: If I were to do it, I’d do it some other way. →Were I to do it, I’d do it some other way. If you should fail, try again. →Should you fail, try again. If you had been here earlier, you would have seen him. →Had you been here earlier, you would have seen him. 但是,If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting.这句话 if 就不能省略。 而且,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略了 if 的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可以说: Were it not for the expense, I would go to Italy. 但不能说:Weren’t it for the expense, I would go to Italy. Please do not use “if”: 如果我是你,我每天早上就早起床。 Were I you, I would get up early every morning. 假如你昨天早十分钟到达火车站,你就赶上火车了。 Had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train. 要是明天有会议,我就会来。 Should there be a meeting, I would come.
  2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。(可以改为条件状语从句)。例如: Without air, there would be no living things. But for your help, I couldn’t have done it. Without electricity human life would be quite different today. Now let’s do some translation. 请用介词短语代替条件状语从句。 要不是你的帮助,我就失败了。 But for (except, without) your help, I would have failed. 如果没有恰当的控制手段,核反应堆就会爆炸。 Without proper means of control, a nuclear reactor would explode.
  3)用其他方式代替条件状语从句(可以改写为条件状语从句。)例如: It would produce bad results to do that. 用动词不定式 =If you did that/should do that, it would produce bad results. She would have come, but she wasn’t informed, nor invited. (用 but.)=She would have come, if she had been informed or invited. A more responsible person would not have left the work half done. 一个更负责的人是不会 把工作做到一半就不管的。(用比较级) =If you (he, she) were more responsible, you (he, she) would not have left the work half done. Now let’s do some translation:
聪明一点的人是不会干出这等蠢事的。 A wiser man would not have done such a foolish thing. 我应该早点写完这封信,但我一直很忙。 I should have written the letter earlier. But I have been very busy. 要能登上珠穆朗玛峰,那经历该多棒! It would be a fantastic experience to climb up to Mount Everest.
  6、虚拟语气省略条件从句或主句 表示虚拟语气的条件句的主句或从句有时可以省略,而省略部分的含义仍有所体现。
  1)省略条件从句,如: It would be very nice. You could have done it yourself. (省略 If you had wanted to.上下文可以看出 You didn’t want to.) (Fact: You didn’t do the work yourself because you didn’t want to.) I wouldn’t smoke. (省略 If I were you.) (表面上说我, 实际上说你。 这是一种委婉的表达法。 (Fact: You smoke very often. I advise you not to smoke any more.)
  2)省略主句:在强调条件从句时,常省略主句,这种句子常表示一种“已不能实现”的愿望,主要用于 If only 引导的感叹句中。 For example: If only he were here! If only I knew more! If only he had stayed with us! Now let’s do some translation: 要是我听了他的建议就好了! If only I had taken his advice! 我如果是一只鸟就好了! If only I were a bird. 快用 If only 造三个句子,表达你的愿望! If only I could live in a big apartment! If only I were a billionaire! If only I could marry her/him! (二)虚拟语气的其他句型和用法
  1、用在“wish+宾语从句”中,表示很难实现或不能实现的愿望,可以翻译为“但愿…”, “悔不该…”等。 表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式;表示将来的愿望,从句的谓语动词用“would (could)+动词原形”;对过去的事情表示愿望,从句的谓语动词用 “had+过去分词” 或“could + have + 过去分词”。Wish 后面的宾语从句必须用虚拟语气,不管这个愿望是否能实现。如: I wish it were Spring all the year round. I wish you could go with us. We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier. Now let’s do some translation using “wish”: 我要是 Jane 就好了 I wish I were Jane. 他真希望自己生活在中世纪。 He really wishes that he were living in the Middle Ages. 但愿北京整年是秋天。
I wish it were autumn in Beijing all the year round. 要是你能同我们一起过寒假就好了。 We wish you would spend the winter vacation with us. 我要是没有买这辆车就好了。 I wish I had not bought this car. Now, it’s time for you to make three wishes about your present, future, and past.. I wish I were twenty years younger. I wish I could work for an NGO. I wish I had studied law in college. 注意: wish 与 hope 接宾语从句的区别在于: hope 表示一般可以实现的希望, 宾语从句用陈述语气。 Wish 表示很难或不大可能实现的愿望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。请比较: We hope we will succeed. (We don’t know if we will succeed.) We wish we would succeed. (We know we can hardly succeed.)
  2、用在 as if/as though,或 even if/even though 引导的从句中: 这时,如果从句中表示的动作发 生在过去,则谓语动词用 had+过去分词形式;如果指的时现在的状况,则用过去式(be 用 were);指将来 则用 would(should, could)+动词原形。这里只看从句动作发生的时间,与主句的时态没有关系。 For example: Some metals look at first sight as though they were gold. He looked as if he were an artist. He speaks English so fluently as if he had studied English in the U.S. He always sounds as if he would help you. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it were broken. Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem. 看她的样子,好像生病了。 She looks as if/though she were ill. 他走起路来就好像他是国王。 He walks as if he were a king. 他表现得若无其事。 He acted as if nothing had happened. 即使天塌下来,他也不会辞职。 He would not resign even if the heaven should collapse.
  3、在 It is (high) time (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词常用过去式(be 的过去式用 were), 或用 should+动词原形(should 不能省略)来表示。这句话的意思是“(现在)该…”。For example: It is time we left/should leave. It is high time that you got married. It is time that I bought a car. Now it is time that you made some sentences by using this pattern. Think about what you should do now. 该你用这个句型造几个句子了。 It is high time that I should lose some weight. It is time that I bought an apartment. It is time that we took a rest.
  4、在 I would rather (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词用过去式(be 的过去式用 were)。这 句话的意思是“我宁可…”,表示说话人的意愿。
For example: I’d rather I were in the rain now. I’d rather you did not tell him.
  5、用在 suppose 开头的祈使句中,从句的谓语动词变化与 as if 后面的动词变化规律相同,用过去 式、过去完成式、或过去将来式。意思是“假如…”,但 suppose 是动词,不是连词。如: Suppose the boss walked in. What should I do? Suppose Saddam had not been captured. What would the U.S. do? Suppose Chen Shui-bian should declare Taiwan independent. What would China do?
  6、 用在 for fear that 或 lest 引导的从句中, 表示“怕…”“万一…”等意思。 从句的谓语动词用 should+ 动词原形,should 可以省略。如: She closed the windows for fear that she (should) catch cold. The officer forbade the use of artillery lest the city’s industry be damaged. Lest the wall should collapse, they evacuated from the building.
  7. 在表示建议、 要求、 命令等意思的动词, arrange, command, demand, desire, insist, order, 如 propose, request, require, suggest, beg, move(提议)后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 should + 动 词原形,should 可以省略,而引导宾语从句的 that 不能省略。例如: We suggested that we (should) have a meeting. We insisted that they (should) go with us. The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days. He demanded that we (should) start right away. The commander ordered that the bridge (should) be bombed. The villagers requested that the old building not be pulled down. Now let’s do some translation: 总经理坚持该项目必须按计划执行。 The general manager insisted that the project be carried out as planned. 省长请求再给他一次机会。 The governor requested that he be given another chance. 美国要求伊朗必须无条件放弃其核武器计划。 The United States demanded that Iran should unconditionally give up its nuclear weapon program (program to develop nuclear weapons) 最高法院裁定此案必须重新审理。 The Supreme Court ruled that this case be retried. 医生建议,即使在节假日人们也不应该熬夜。 Doctors suggest that people should not stay up late even on holidays. 注意:suggest 表示“暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。Insist 后面强调的是事实时,宾语从句也不 用虚拟语气。如: The neighbor suggested that his wife was having an affair. He insisted that he was right. Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything.
  8、使用上述表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词派生的名词,或在这些动词用作名词时,名词之后的 从句用虚拟语气,即从句的谓语动词用 should+动词原形,should 可以省略。从句的引导词 that 不能 省略。这与上述第 7 项类似。如: He made a request that he (should) be allowed to take 3 days off. = He requested that he
be allowed to take 3 days off. Our suggestion is that education not be industrialized. = We suggest that education not be industrialized. The president’s decision is that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time. =The president decided that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time.
  9、上述动词在 It is suggested that…, It is required that…, It’s requested that…, It’s ordered that…, It’s arranged that…句型中,that 之后的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用 should+动词原形, should 可以省略,但引导词 that 不能省略。如: It was suggested that he attend the conference. It was requested that the trial be openly reported.
  10、在 It’s important (imperative, necessary, essential, vital, desirable, advisable, better) that…句型中,that 引导的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用 should + 动词原形,should 可以省略。这个 句型表示说话人的意见、要求等。 For example: It is essential that there should be enough food and clothing for the winter. It is desirable that your wedding be postponed until next July. It is imperative that the board chairman be present at the board meeting. 另外,在一些习惯用语中也有虚拟语气的形式。但最好把这些习惯用语作为一种句型来记住。如: May you be happy! May you succeed! Long live the People’s Republic of China! Everybody leave the room! You had better not resign. I would rather not tell you. 总之,虚拟语气是英语中的一个难点,因为虚拟语气的用法和句型较多,动词的变化比较复杂。在学 习的时候要逐个过关。同时,也要善于发现虚拟语气的规律。根据动词的变化,大致可以把虚拟语气分为 三种: 一种是动词用过去式,过去分词式,或过去将来式,这主要是用 if…, wish, suppose 的情况; 一种是动词用 should+动词原形(should 可以省略),这主要用于表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动 词或名词后面所接的从句,以及 It is important (necessary) that…后面所接的从句; 一种是动词用过去式,如 It is (high) time (that)…和 I would rather 后面的从句。同学们还可以 自己总结适合自己的规律,如把虚拟语气句型可以分为用于简单句、条件状语从句、宾语从句、主语从句、 表语从句、定语从句、同位语从句等。 Now let’s do some exercises to consolidate what we have learned about subjunctive mood: 一、单项选择:
  1. The teacher demanded that the exam before eleven. a. must finish b. would be finished c. be finished d. must be finished
  2. She made the demand that she at once. a. leave b. leaves c. left d. to be left
  3. He is talking so much about America as if he there. a. had been b. has been c. was d. been cn
  4. Mother insisted that the child’s hands before dinner.
a. should wash b. be washed c. wou
 

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