上百度,输入 沈阳高分英语家教"查询 输入"沈阳高分英语家教 查询! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度 输入 沈阳高分英语家教 查询 命题点 3 推理判断 本类考题解答锦囊 每篇文章都有一定的写作目的, 作者往往期待读者读了文章后知道应当怎样去做某些事 情或按某种方式思考问题。 这层意思通常并不是在文章申明确表达出来, 而是隐含在文章之 中。这就要求读者在阅读过程中去沟通外现的和内含的,已述的和未述的含义。这就需要仔 细的阅读和认真的思考, 在通盘理解文章的基础上去领会作者的言外之意, 去掌握语言的微 妙之处,真正欣赏和理解阅读的东西;阅读中的推论是很常见的,我们所读的一切几乎都可 以做出程度不同的推论。 凡推断出的内容在文章中都没有明确叙述,但却暗含在文字之中。因此在进行推断时, 必须以有关的文字部分作为推理的前提和依据。所谓推断,指根据推测而加以判断;而推测 总是根据已知的信息推断出未知的信息。 即把有关的文字作为已知部分, 从中推断出未知部 分。据以推理的有关文字部分可能是词或句子,也可能是若干句,甚至全文,要想做出精确 的推断,必须注意以下四点。
  1.细心地了解文章中所提供的全部信息和信息的各个方面。
  2.分析已知的信息,用正确的观点,借助于一些常识,最大限度地捕捉到信息的本质。
  3.注意词、句子的本义和与之有关的其他意义。
  4.根据己知信息,即短文或有关的文字部分,做出的推断必须与作者的原意相符,切 忌以自己的观点取代作者的原意。 推理判断往往包括数据事实推断, 常识推断, 逻辑结论以及推断作者的写作目的、 态度、 倾;向等几种类型。
  1.数据事实推断:这种推断常常针对某一个或几个具体细节。是比较简单的推断。首 先在原文中找到据以推理的有关文字部分,对与数字有关的推断,只需简单推算,即可得出 结果。对与事实有关的,要加以分析,尤其要悟出字里行间的意思。 例题: House prices in England increased sharply between 1971 and 19
  72. The following records how much a house in Chelsea London, had risen in price since 1955: Take No. 29 Smith Terrace for example. In 1955,Jane Grey sold for £2,0
  00. Mrs Bowena Black bought it for £4,900 and sold it nine years later to Bill and Dreen White for £22,9
  50. Now four years later.
  1)The price of the house was as high in 1972 as in the yearJane Grey sold it. A. about ten times B. twice C. 150 percent D. fifteen times
  2)Mrs Bowena Black made a prof it (利润)of. A. £2,900 B. £8,典型例题 £7,典型例题 D. £18,典型例题 Of all the tenants,who earned most? A. The Whites. B. Jane Grey. C. Mrs Black. D. Mr White.
  4)When did Mrs Black buy the house? A. 19
  71. B. 1972 C. 19
  68. D. 1959
  5)Jane Grey lived at No. 29 Smith Terrace A. for four years B. for nine years C. between 1971 and 1972 D. before 1955
  6)If MrS B1aCk had waited four years to setl the house She would have earned as much as. A.£
  28,000 B.£
  18,000 C.£
  30,000 D.£
  25,100
第 1 页 共 32 页
上百度,输入 沈阳高分英语家教"查询 输入"沈阳高分英语家教 查询! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度 输入 沈阳高分英语家教 查询 以上各题的推理前提均可在原文中找到。 1 题的正确答案须从 第 “In 19
  55, JaneGrey s 典型例题£
  2,0
  00,“…inl9
  72,the house is valued at£
  30,0
  00; ” ”这两句话推 知, 项对。 2 题的正确答案应从 D 第 “Mrs Bowena Black bought it for£
  4, 900and sold it nine years later to Billand Dreen White for£
  22,9500'得知 D 项对。第 3 题的正 确答案应从“…Jane Grey sold for£
  2,0
  00. Mrs Bowena Black bought it for£
  4, 900 and so1d it nine years later to Bill andDreenWhitefOr£
  22,9
  50. ”推知, MrsBlack 获利最多。第 4 题须从“Mrs Bosena Black…and sold it nine years…NOW four years later,inl972…. ”得知 Mrs Black 是在 1959 年买的房子,故 D 项为正确答 案。第 5 题可从“Inl9
  55,Jane Grey so1d it for£
  2,0
  00. ”推知 D 项正确。第 6 题 须从“Mrs Bowena Black..£
  4,900” . . “..the house is valued at£
  30,000” 两句话推知 D 项为正确答案。
  2.常识推断:有些时候,文章里并没有提供任何可据以推断的材料,或虽有提供,但 却不足以推出正确的未知事实。这时便须根据平常积累的有关知识来进行推断。 例: Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. If metal is heated and then cooled very quicky, for example by dipping it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle(脆)--that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as is wished, by annealing it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to co ol slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other mate rials, such as glass. Why do people put hot metal in water? A. To make it hard. B. To make it soft. C. To make it cool. B. To make it brittl 从文中“by dipping it in water,it will be very hard but also very brittle.”这一 信息还不足以推出正确答案。然后根据物理常识,在制造各种工具时,往往采取淬火这一工 艺,其目的是使金属变硬以便制成锋利的工具。即可推出选项 A 为正确答案。
  3.逻辑结论:这类推断比前两种困难得多。在阅读过程中,读者必须对文章的全部事 实或细节作通盘考虑,从而得出合乎逻辑的结论。结论是根据事实作出的惟一决定。要想从 一个句子,一个段落或一篇文章中得出正确的结论,读者必须学会善于思考,不断提高自己 的逻辑思维能力。 例 Have you ever heard of a sport called tubing? Hundreds of people float down a rushing river at once in old truck-tire tubes. Sometimes many hold hands. At first the ride is bumpy and frightful, for the narrow river rushes swiftly. Then the river widens and grows calm. Never try tubing alone or in rapids, however. The story suggests that tubing. A. should not be done in moving water B. is done mainly by truck drivers C. costs a lot of money D. can be dangerous 根据文中内容数百人乘坐着旧卡车,轮胎在湍急的河水中向下游漂去,颠簸而可怕,可推 知这项运动是十分危险的。D 项为正确答案。
  4.推断作者的写作目的、态度,文章的语气等:这类推断要求对论述对象持何种态度、 思想倾向作出判断。如作者对所陈述的观点是赞成,还是反对,对记叙或描写的人或事等是
第 2 页 共 32 页
上百度,输入 沈阳高分英语家教"查询 输入"沈阳高分英语家教 查询! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度 输入 沈阳高分英语家教 查询 喜欢,或是厌恶;是同情或是冷漠。作者的这种态度和感情色彩不一定直接表述出来,而往 往隐含在字里行间,或者流露于修饰的词语之中。因此要做好这类推断须综观全文,掌握主 题思想,并以此为推理的前提,还要注意文章的措辞,把握文章论述的基调。 例: Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing a nd say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them? it is always'the fault of the buses or the airplanes. Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn't ask questions? he answers questions. He never says, "I don't know." I don't know Mm Neff. It seems that not many people know her. I sometimes wonder about her. Is she always right? Or maybe she is always wrong? Dces she often break dishes or miss buses? Does she have problems? I wonder.
  1)Which of the following do you think gives the most important trait (特性) of Mr Neffs character? A. He is a very wise man. B. He plans everything well. C. He is moral and upright. D. He is very satisfied with himself.
  2)Which of the following do you guess is true of Mrs Neff? A. She probably obeys her husband in everything. B. She probably feels very proud to be a help of her husband. C. She probably quarrels with her husband all the time. D. She probably feels very happy to have such a successful husband.
  3)Which of the following best describes the writer's attitude towards Mr Neff? A. He finds Mr Neff hard to understand. B. He thinks Mr Neff wonderful. C. He feels pity for Mr Neff. D. He does not like Mr Neff. 以上各题的答案均没有直接表述在短文里,必须从字里行间悟出作者的言外之意。本 文记叙的是一位一贯正确的人 Mr Neff。根据这一主题,可推知他对自己的一切都很满意。 第 1 题选项 D 为正确答案。从 Mr Neff 事事正确,而 Mr Neff 又鲜为人知出发,可得出结 论 Neff 夫人在任何事情上都服从于她丈夫这一事实,故第 2 题 A 为正确项。尽管短文中 没有直接陈述作者对 MrNeff 这一人物的态度, 但从主题思想和某些措辞中仍可悟出作者对 Mr Neff 很讨厌这一事实。如作者在文章中一再使用“Never” ,一词,并还写到..Even . if he does miss them,it is alway Sthe fault of the buses of the airplanes. ”等来 暗示他对 Mr Neff 的厌恶之情,故第 3 题 D 为正确答案。 在阅读理解题中,有关针对段落或短文的特定细节、主题思想、常识,以及作者的写作 态度、目的等的推断题,常见题型有:
  1. We can infer from the passage (paragraph, fact, example... ) that.
第 3 页 共 32 页
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  2. The writer suggests that.
  3. From the passage (paragraph, story... ), we can tell.
  4. The passage implies, but does not directly state that.
  5. We may conclude from the passage that.
  6. The writer's (author's) attitude toward is.
  7. The tone of the passage is. Ⅰ高考最新热门题
  1.(典型例题 Tristan da Cunha, a 38-square-mile isand, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510 miles west of its nearest neighour, ST. Helena,and 1,950 miles west of Africa. Discov- ered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将)of the same name in 15 典型例题 settled in 1810, the isand belongs to Great Britain and has a population of few hundred. Coming in a close second--and often wrongly mentioned as the most distant land--is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbor, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America. The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around ther 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years,giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous. On Easter Sunday, 1722, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory(智利 领土). They share one street, a small airport, and a few hours of television per day.
  1. It can be learned from the text that the island of tristan da Cunha. A. was named after its discoverer B. got its name from Holland settlers C. was named by the British govenment D. got its name from the Guinness Book of Records
  2. Wich of the following is most famous for moai? A. Tristan da Cunha. B. Pitcairn Island C. Easter Island. D. St. Helena.
  3. Which country does Easter Island belong to? A. Britain. B. Hollland. C. Portugal. D. Chile 命题目的与解题技巧:本文的命题目的考查学生推理判断能力。做这类题的技巧在于:首先 在原文中找到据以推理的有关文字部分,借助于一些常识,然后加以分析推理,最终作出判 断。 解析:本文介绍了 TristandaCunha 岛的来历,地理位置及人们的生活状况。 解析 答案:
  1.A 这是一道推断题。从第一段第三句,这小岛名字是以岛屿发现者的名字来命 答案 名的。
  2.C 这理一道细节推断题,可从第二段、第三段,尤其是第三段第二句找到, Easterlsland(复活节岛)是智利在南太平洋上的一个小岛。
第 4 页 共 32 页
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  3. 这是一道细节推断题, D 可从第四段找到。 请留意该段中的 On Easter Sunday(在 复活节上), 暗示了 Easter Is
 

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   今人不见古时月,今月曾经照古人。 天不老,情难绝。心似双丝网,中有千千结。-张先《千秋岁》 天不老,情难绝。心似双丝网,中有千千结。-张先《千秋岁》 。-张先 似此星辰非昨夜,为谁风露立中宵。-黄景仁《绮怀诗二首其一》 似此星辰非昨夜,为谁风露立中宵。-黄景仁《绮怀诗二首其一》 。-黄景仁 直道相思了无益,未妨惆怅是清狂。-李商隐《无题六首其三》 直道相思了无益,未妨惆怅是清狂。-李商隐《无题六首其三》 。-李商隐 深知身在情长在,怅望江头江水声。-李商隐《暮秋独游曲江》 深知身在情长在,怅 ...

练英语口语的好句子

   为了练好口语,你敢不敢每天读一遍,坚持一个月? 为了练好口语,你敢不敢每天读一遍,坚持一个月? What are you trying to say?(你到底想说什么?) Don't be silly.(别胡闹了。) How strong are your glasses?(你近视多少度?) Just because.(没有别的原因。) It isn't the way I hoped it would be.(这不是我所盼望的。) You will never guess.(你永远猜不到。 ...

英语美文阅读10

   美文欣赏 今天,我开始新的生活(下) Source: 恒星英语学习网 Onion 2010-07-25 我要投稿 论坛 Favorite 迅雷音频高速下载 音频下载[点击右键另存为] 美文欣赏 今天,我开始新的生活(上) As a child I was slave to my impulses; now I am slave to my habits, as are all grown men. I have surrendered my free will to the years ...

全国硕士研究生入学统一考试--英语(一)英语(二)考试分析3

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商务英语中级口语考试模拟题

   商务英语中级口语考试模拟题 BEC Sample Interview Stage One Interlocutor :Good morning. My name is John Smith, and this is my colleague, Mary Clinton. And your names are Li Hua and Wang Wei? Li: Yeah Wang: Yeah Interlocutor: Thank you. Now, first of all, we'd lik ...