1
考点透析“高中语法知识易错点” 考点透析“高中语法知识易错点”
审稿: 审稿:白雪雁 责编: 责编:张敏 本部分共 85 条,对中学生在英语语法方面容易产生错误或混淆的地方作了有针对性的提示,而不是系统地讲解语 法知识,这对学生抓住要点重点是有帮助的。

  1. 名词变复数的特殊形式
childchildren, stomachstomachs, deerdeer, footfeet, toothteeth, ChineseChinese, manmen, womanwomen, mousemice, sheepsheep,
a man doctormen doctors,
a woman doctorwomen doctors, grown-upgrown-ups
looker-onlookers-on,
误:There are many woman teachers in my school. 正:There are many women teachers in my school.

  2. 常考不可数名词
advice, baggage, equipment, information, luggage, furniture, fun, weather, knowledge,jewelry, progress
误:What a fine weather it is! 正:What fine weather it is!
可数不可数均可,
  3. 可数不可数均可,但意思不同
experience 经历(可数);经验(不可数) room 房间(可数);空间(不可数) exercise 练习(可数);锻炼、运动(不可数)
误:Visiting the Great Wall is unforgettable experience to me. 正:Visiting the Great Wall is an unforgettable experience to me.
只能修饰可数名词的有:
  4. 只能修饰可数名词的有:
few, a few, many, a great/good many, a large number of…
误:There is a large number of water in the hole. 正:There is a great deal of water in the hole.
只能修饰不可数名词的有:
  5. 只能修饰不可数名词的有:
little, a little, much, a large amount of, a great/good deal of…
误:There are a great deal of people living there.
2
正:There are a good many people living there.
可数不可数都可修饰的有:
  6. 可数不可数都可修饰的有:
a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity of, large quantities of, 如: There are plenty of trees along the river. There is a large quantity of snow on the top of the mountain.
只有复数形式的名词有:
  7. 只有复数形式的名词有:
trousers, clothes, socks, shorts, goods, thanks, congratulations, belongings…
误:A pair of trousers are hanging over there. 正:A pair of trousers is hanging over there.
复数形式,单数意思的有:
  8. 复数形式,单数意思的有:
plastics, news, politics, physics, mathematics…
误:The news are exciting. 正:The news is exciting.
复合名词的复数形式。
  9. 复合名词的复数形式。
girl friends, boy students, women teachers, men workers, passers-by, go-betweens, grown-ups
误:There're many boys students in my class. 正:There're many boy students in my class.
名词做主语,
  10. 名词做主语,谓语动词用复数
police, cattle, clothes, goods
误:Cattle sells well at that market. 正:Cattle sell well at that market.
几个应该特殊注意的名词。
  11. 几个应该特殊注意的名词。
people (民族,人); village (村庄,村民);man(男人,人类),youth (年轻人,青年男子,青春)
误:The Chinese are peace-loving people. 正:The Chinese are a peace-loving people.

  12. 名词所有格
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  1) 形式 's, of Tom's living room, teachers' office, teachers' room, a friend of mine, John and Mary's school, John's and Mary's schools

  2) 's 适用范围 有生命的物体、时间、距离、国家、城市、机构等
误:This is the mountain's picture. 正:This is a picture of the mountain.
误:John and Mary's schools are beautiful. 正:John's and Mary's schools are beautiful.
不能被's 所替换的所有格形式:
  3) 不能被's 所替换的所有格形式: the city of Beijing, at the age of 20, the experience of the old, the struggle of the poor…
的有以下几种情况。
  13. 必须加 the 的有以下几种情况。
特指某( 人或某(
  1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)物; I have a pen. The pen is lost.
谈话双方所共知的共指的物体;
  2) 谈话双方所共知的共指的物体; Look at the blackboard.
序数词,形容词最高级前;
  3) 序数词,形容词最高级前; She is the best student in my class.

  4) 世界上独一无二的物体 The earth moves around the sun.
表方位的名词前;
  5) 表方位的名词前; The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
形容词前表一类人;
  6) 形容词前表一类人; The rich are not always happy.

  7) 乐器 He is playing the piano now.
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山脉、河流、海洋、群岛;
  8) 山脉、河流、海洋、群岛; China is on the east of the Pacific Ocean.

  9) same, only, very 前; It's the very book I'm looking for.
+计量单位 计量单位;
  10) by the +计量单位;by the dozen, by the day, by the pound The workers are paid by the hour.
误:Birds fly to south in winter. 正:Birds fly to the south in winter. Birds fly south in winter.
不用冠词的情况有以下几种。
  14. 不用冠词的情况有以下几种。
表泛指的名词前;
  1) 表泛指的名词前; 如:Do you like music?
三餐前;
  2) 三餐前; 如:have breakfast, lunch, supper, dinner…
棋类、球类运动前;
  3) 棋类、球类运动前; Almost all the boys in my class love playing football.
表官衔、职位的名词前;
  4) 表官衔、职位的名词前; He was made monitor of the class.
名词前。
  5) Child as he is 中的 child 名词前。 Student as he is, he never obeys the teacher.

  15. it, that, one, the one, the ones, those
My pen was lost. I cannot find it. (同一物体) My pen was lost. I have to buy a new one. (同类不同一) The population of Shanghai is much larger than that of Tianjin. (不可数名词) This pen is not the one I lost yesterday. (特指) The pens are not the ones I lost yesterday. The pens are not those I lost yesterday.
误句:The weather in Beijing is much colder than the one in Shanghai. 正句:The weather in Beijing is much colder than that in Shanghai.
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  16. each, either, both, neither, every, all
Trees are planted on either/each side of the street. Trees are planted on both sides of the street. Trees are planted on every/each side of the square. Trees are planted on neither side of the street. Trees are planted on all sides of the square.
误句:You can tie the horse to every of the two trees. 正句:You can tie the horse to either of the two trees.

  17. any, either
I have three books and you can choose any one. I have two books and you can choose either one.
误句:When would you like to come over to my house, Saturday or Sunday? Any day is OK with me. 正句:When would you like to come over to my house, Saturday or Sunday? Either day is OK with me.

  18. another, the other, other, others
Another student came in. (another 后接可数名词单数,表示泛指。) I have two brothers. One is a teacher. The other is a doctor. I ate half of the peach and left the other half to my brother. (one+名词单数… the other+名词单数… 是固定搭配,表示两者中一个……,剩余一个……,还可以表示一个 整体的一半……,另一半……) Some students are playing football on the playground. Others(other students)are doing their homework in the classroom. (some+可数名词复数 … other+可数名词复数… 也是一个固定搭配,表示一些……,另外一些……)

  19. none, nothing, nobody, neither

  1) How many students are there in the classroom? None.
  2) How much money do you have? None.
  3) Is there anybody in the classroom? Nobody.
  4) Is there anything in the room?
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Nothing.
  5) Would you please lend me some ink? Sorry, but I have none left myself.
  6) I want neither of the two books. I want none of the three books. 误句:What do you want? None. 正句:
  1) What do you want? Nothing.
  2) Of the three things, which do you want? None.
反身代词应注意以下几点。
  20. 反身代词应注意以下几点。

  1) I myself think…
  2) Help yourself! 请随便吃吧
  3) Make yourself at home!别客气
  4) Don't upset yourself.别自寻烦恼
  5) make oneself heard/ understood I couldn't make myself heard above the noise.声音被淹没了。
  6) between ourselves, do you think 私下里说
  7) In itself, his illness is nothing to worry about.就疾病本身而言,没什么可担心的。
  8) He is not quite himself today.他感到不舒服
  9) by oneself = alone, without help 单干、无人帮忙
  10) for oneself 为…… You have the right to decide for yourself.
  11) of oneself 自动地 The light went out of itself.
代词的其他注意事项:
  21. 代词的其他注意事项:

  1) this, that My plan is like this: first…second…third… He was ill. That's why he didn't come.
  2) much, many
  3) some, any
  4) it 可以指代分不清性别的小孩 Is it a boy or a girl?
  5) she, he 也可以用于月亮、太阳、轮船或动物拟人化。 也可以用于月亮、太阳、轮船或动物拟人化。 China is our motherland and she is the most beautiful country in the world in my opinion.
  6) you, he and I, you and I, ladies and gentlemen

  22. 数词
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  1) 大于某数 more than 20 years, over thirty, above twenty degrees
  2) 小于 less than ten days, fewer than 50 people, children under 7
  3) 至少 at least 10 dollars, no less than 100 people
  4) 大约 about three days, around 2 o'clock, two miles or so
  5) 至多 not more than 5 rooms, at most ten days
  6) 仅有 no more than 1 year, only 2 years
  7) 倍数 This ruler is twice/three times longer than that one. This ruler is twice/three times as long as that one. This ruler is twice/three times the length of that one. 误:This box is as three times heavier as that one. 正:This box is three times as heavy as that one.
数字+形容词+
  23. 数字+形容词+名词
It's a five-foot-deep hole. The hole is five feet deep. It's a hole five feet deep. 误句:It's a three-meters-long table. 正句:It's a three-meter-long table.
形容词,
  24. 形容词,副词的比较级和最高级
busybusierbusiest hothotterhottest importantmore importantmost important goodbetterbest many/muchmoremost bad/illworseworst oldolder/elderoldest/eldest littlelessleast farfarther/furtherfarthest/furthest badlyworseworst wellbetterbest
形容词需要注意以下几点:
  25. 形容词需要注意以下几点:
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  1) 只能做定语的形容词有:live, main, chief; 只能做定语的形容词有: My main purpose is to help you here.
  2) 只能做表语的形容词有:alone, alike, awake, asleep, lit, content 只能做表语的形容词有: He is alone, but he doesn't feel lonely.
  3) 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序依次是:冠词(所有格;指示词;数词) 品质;大小长短;形状;新旧;颜色;产地; 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序依次是:冠词(所有格;指示词;数词) 品质;大小长短;形状;新旧;颜色;产地; ;品质 ; 材料;用途; 材料;用途; 例如: a beautiful little round red Chinese wooden public reading room
  4) 能修饰形容词比较级的有:much, rather, even , still, far, any, no, a little, a bit, a lot, a great deal, yet 等; 能修饰形容词比较级的有: I'm much better now. I'm a great deal better now.
  5) 能修饰形容词最高级的有:by far, very, much。 能修饰形容词最高级的有: 。 He is by far the best student in my class.
注意几个短语的用法。
  26. 注意几个短语的用法。

  1) the tallest of all The girl is the best student of all.
  2) the smaller of the two This island is the larger of the two.
  3) less rich than He is less poor than his brother.
  4) as rich as He is as tall as his brother.
  5) the more…, the better… The more you look at it, the better you like it.
  6) not more beautiful than, no more beautiful than 误:He is no more clever than his brother. So he can solve the problem. 正:He is no more foolish than his brother. So he can solve the problem.

  27. 注意几组副词的区别。
  27. 注意几组副词的区别。

  1) deep, deeply I was deeply touched by the moving story.
  2) high, highly I thought highly of his idea.
  3) wide, widely English is widely spoken in China nowadays.
  4) direct, directly Go direct home.
  5) first, firstly
  6) free, freely He can talk freely in English.
  7) hard, hardly I can hardly move.
  8) late, lately Where have you been lately?
  9) just, justly
  10) loud, aloud, loudly Reading aloud is important for English learners.
  11) most, mostly My friends are mostly Chinese.
  12) near, nearly, almost Almost nobody was there to help him.
  13) fair, fairly, rather, quite
  14) also, as well, too, either
  15) very, much, very much 误:I'm deep moved by what he said. 正:I'm deeply moved by what he said.
9

  28. 几个易错的副词
home, downtown, downstairs, abroad 误句:He went to abroad three years ago. 正句:He went abroad three years ago.
介词与动词的搭配。
  29. 介词与动词的搭配。
agree with, belong to, break away from, care for… He agreed with what I said.
介词与形容词的搭配。
  30. 介词与形容词的搭配。
afraid of, angry with, different from, good at… I'm afraid of falling behind others.
介词与名词的搭配。
  31. 介词与名词的搭配。
answer to, key to, reason for, cause of, vis
 

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