高考英语作文写作基础??如何谋篇布局及学习连接词 一. 教学内容: 书面表达讲解与训练
  1. 如何谋篇布局??写好篇章结构
  2. 学习连接词??把握连接上下文的关键 (一)写作基础讲解与练习: 掌握如何写好篇章的技巧:
  1. 注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分(Opening paragraph )说出文中的要点、核心问题。 正文部分 (Body paragraphs) 围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。 结尾部分 (Concluding paragraph)对全文的总结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,去除与主 题无关的内容。
  2. 确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常 主题句出现在一篇文章的开头,而后,全文对主题句所提出的内容进行解释,扩展。 写主题句应注意以下几点: (
  1)归纳出你要写的文章的几个要点 (
  2)提炼出一句具有概括性的话 (
  3)主题句应具有可读性,抓住、吸引读者。 下面我们通过例子来学习、体会“主题句” 范例
  1: Something unpleasant happened to us on our way to the beach. In the morning, while we were waiting to buy train tickets in the railway station, a bus driver came over to us. He told us he also was going to the beach, the ride was cheap, and the bus was air-conditioned. We felt grateful and got on his bus. As we were talking happily on the way, the bus suddenly stopped. The driver said he needed two hours to repair the engine. While he was working on the engine, he turned off the air-conditioner. He actually took four hours to finish his job, and we spent the whole morning sweating in the heat! 范例
  2: I am an active boy and I talk more than listen. When I talk with my friends, I’m always ready to express myself. I’m not afraid to tell others what I think. I am usually the focus of the attention because I often have lots of ideas that interest everyone. In my opinion, people should share and exchange each other’s ideas. But when I am with the quiet people I feel the air is frozen. I’m always trying to find a topic and start a conversation. In this way, People will like me and feel happy. In a word, I am optimistic and active and I can make everybody as confident as me. 范例
  3: 根据下面表格以“Changes in People’s Diet ”为题写一篇短文。
审题列提纲: (
  1)state the changes in people’s diet in the past five years; (
  2)give possible reasons for the changes; (
  3)draw your own conclusions. Diet is very important in people’ life. From 1986 to 1990, people’ diet changed a lot. Grain was s s no longer regarded as the main food. And as the proportion(比例) of fruit and vegetable declined, the consumption of milk and meat increased. What caused these changes? There are two reasons. One is that with the development of science, people began to realize the importance of maintaining a balanced diet. The other is that people had more money to spend and could afford more expensive food. They tried to change their low-priced diet into a more varied one. They were eager to build up a strong body by improving their living standards. With the development of our economy and improvement of our food supply, further changes will take place in people’s diet. 看高考题体会主题句及篇章布局: 98 年高考学生范文 I had been looking forward to today for long! Seven in the morning we gathered at our school gate, and then, we six-grade students of No.1 Middle School went to Red Star Farm for a visit. On arriving there, we were welcomed warmly by the guard and several farmers. Then the guard showed us around the whole farm. We were all struck by the sight of hard working. In the noon we had a wonderful picnic on the grass. We were so glad that after lunch we turned on the radio carried by Mingming. Most of us danced to music happily, while others also enjoyed themselves talking together. Four in the afternoon, we said goodbye to the guard and all the farmers. What a nice day! 本篇文章思路清晰,要点明确,前后呼应,加强了文章的整体性。 高考书面表达参考答案: Today we visited a farm. Early in the morning we met at the school gate and went there together. The farm workers gave us a warm welcome. Then the head of the farm showed us around. How glad we were to see the crops and vegetables growing well. At noon we had a picnic lunch in the sunshine. After a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing, telling jokes or stories. Two of us even played a game of chess. The time passed quickly. Before we knew it, we had to say goodbye to the workers. (二)学习连接词把握连接上下文的关键 要想使文章有整体性、连贯性,就要学会正确使用连接词 下面请你认真学习并学会运用下列常见连接词 i 表示罗列增加 first, second, third, first, then/next, after that/ next, finally for one thing…for another…, on (the)one hand…on the other hand,
besides / what’s more/ in addition / furthermore/ moreover /another/ also, especially/ In particular, i 表示时间顺序 now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, at first, in the beginning, to begin with, later, next, finally, immediately, soon, suddenly, all of a sudden, at that moment , as soon as, the moment from now on, from then on, at the same time, meanwhile, till, not...until, before, after, when , while, as, during, i 表示解释说明 now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, moreover furthermore, in fact, actually i 表示转折关系 but, however, while, though, or, otherwise, on the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast, despite, in spite of, even though, except(for), instead, of course, after all, i 表示并列关系 or, and, also, too, not only... but also, as well as, both... and, either ...or, neither...nor i 表示因果关系 because, because of, since, now that, as, thanks to..., due to..., therefore, as a result(of), otherwise, so… that, such… that i 表示条件关系 as (so)long as, on condition that, if, unless i 表示让步关系 though, although, as, even if, even though, whether ...or..., however, whoever, whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where, when, whom) i 表示举例 for example, for instance, such as..., take... for example i 表示比较 be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with(to)... just like, just as, i 表示目的 for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order to , so as to, i 表示强调 indeed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously, above all, i 表示概括归纳 in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, As we all know, as has been stated,as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion, 看高考题体会连接词的运用: 2001 高考试题
Dear Dick, How nice to hear from you again. You want to know what is going on in schools in China? In short, things have begun to improve since schools were called on to reduce learning load. I don’t know about others, but I used to have work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. Now I have more free time. I can follow my own interests such as reading books, visiting museums, and taking computer lessons. In the evenings I can watch news on TV or read newspapers. What’s more, I can go to bed earlier. As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things. Best wishes, Li Hua 用所给的词完成下面短文: hfinally, then, at first, after that I had a bad cold last week. , I had a running nose, but I did not take it seriously. I began to cough. , I had a fever and felt weak. , I was sent to hospital and had to lie in bed for three days. 答案: At first, Then, After that, Finally hand , but, finally, immediately, now, at first, one day, then, so, The naughty boy in the story “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” has grown up. he works as a weatherman in his village. he studied the weather carefully found that a storm was coming. , he told all the villagers to prepare for the bad weather, no one believed him. , the weather was fine, the villagers said that the young man was lying again. the weather suddenly changed a storm wind came. All the villagers tried to save the crops it was too late. , the storm ruined all the crops. 答案:Now, One day, and, Immediately, but, At first, so, Then, and, but, Finally ibut, moreover, of course, for one thing, in addition, however, first, furthermore, then, second Foreign cars are often more expensive to own in the United States than American-made cars. , foreign cars cost more to buy. , there are reasons for this. The quality of workmanship that goes into making them is very high. , high tariffs(关税)on many foreign models have raised prices. , foreign cars often cost more to register. , insurance rates can be higher. , parts and repair costs are much greater than they are for American cars. , there are some financial advantages to owning a foreign cars. , many of them get better gas mileage, and they need new tires less often than American cars do. , their resale value is higher. The price of a year-old foreign car may be only $300 less than what it cost new. the price for a year-old American car will be around $1,000 less. 答案: Foreign cars are often more expensive to own in the United States than American-made cars. For one thing, foreign cars cost more to buy. Of course, there are reasons for this. The quality of workmanship that goes into making them is very high. Then, high tariffs(关税) on many foreign
models have raised prices. Furthermore, foreign cars often cost more to register. In addition, insurance rates can be higher. Moreover, parts and repair costs are much greater than they are for American cars. However, there are some financial advantages to owning foreign cars. First, many of them get better gas mileage, and they need new tires less often than American cars do. Second, their resale value is higher. The price of a year-old foreign car may be only $300 less than what it cost new. But the price for a year-old American car will be around $1,000 less. 【模拟试题】 I. 高考试题单选??连接词部分练习:
  1. John shut everybody out of the kitchen he could prepare his grand surprise for the party.(20
  02) A. which B. when C. so that D. as if
  2. He was about to tell me the secret someone patted him on the shoulder.(2002 Shanghai) A. as B. until C. while D. when
  3. I would appreciate it you call back this afternoon for the doctor’s appointment. (2003 Shanghai) A. until B. if C. when D. that
  4. I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it. (2003 Beijing) A. Even though B. Unless C As long as D. While
  5. He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation it got worse. (2003 Shanghai) A. until B. when C. before D. as
  6. I can think of many cases students obviously knew a lot of English words but couldn’t write a good essay. (2003 Shanghai) A. why B. which C. as D. where II. 填入适当的连接词使句子完整:
  7. Send my regards to her you see her.
  8. he appeared, the masses burst into a storming applause.
  9. Uncle Tom was over seventy, he worked just as hard as others.
  10. everything is clear to you all, I have nothing more to explain.
  11. We held a class meeting we might have a through discussion about the matter.
  12. Do the teacher told you.
  13. you have expressed your determination, you should act.
  14. We would understand you better you said exactly what you meant.
  15. People do not know the value of health they lose it.
【试题答案】 I.
  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. C
  5. C
  6. B II.
  7. when
  8. As soon as
  9. Although
  10. As/Since
  11. so that / in order that
  12. as
  13. Now that
  14. if
  15. till/until
 

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