阅读理解突破(一) ? ?主旨大意题

  1.主旨大意题的设题方式 (
  1)What is the passage mainly about? (
  2)What is the main problem being discussed in the passage? (
  3)What is the main idea of this passage? (
  4)The passage is mainly about. (
  5)Which of the following may be the best title for the passage? (
  6)The main idea of the passage is. (
  7)Which of the following statements best summarizes the author’s main point? (
  8)This paragraph centers/focuses on. (
  9)This passage is chiefly concerned with. (
  10)The author’s purpose in writing this passage is. (
  11)What is the best title for the passage?
  2.解题策略??如何寻找主题句 (
  1)读首句抓大意。说明文、议论文等文章的主题句多放在文章开头,抓住了主题句就抓 住了文章的中心,因此要寻找这类文章的主旨大意就需要研究文章的首句。 (
  2)读尾句抓大意。有时文章的主题句安排在文章的结尾,作为全篇的总结。 (
  3)读首尾抓大意。有些文章或段落的开头和结尾部分都有主题句,这种结构是为了突出 主题思想而使用的两次点题的写作方法。通常前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复,后面点 题是进一步的总结,是引申,是发展。 (
  4)从段落中抓大意。有些文章或段落的主题句居中,这种文章或段落往往以一句或几句 话引出要表达的主题,在主题句出现以后,再举例子陈述细节或继续论证。 (
  5)归纳分析抓大意。有些文章或段落无明显的主题句,但字里行间无不体现主题。这就 要求考生在阅读过程中根据文中所叙述的事实或提供的线索来概括总结主旨大意。 1 A couple of years ago,before a trip to China,Nicole Davis and her US women’s volleyball teammates were warned about the prominence (显著、突 出) of coach “Jenny” Lang Ping in her native country. “I was pushed over by Chinese journalists while I was just trying to put my luggage on the bus,”said Davis. Known as the “Iron Hammer” for her punishing spikes(扣球),Lang made it possible for China to dominate in the sport in the early 1980s.She was a key player on China’s 1984 Olympic gold medal winning team. When the US team arrived for the Olympics,Lang,48,who is from Beijing,had to take a different route to avoid a crowd of reporters and fans. Then came the greatest moment to Lang:While the US team was playing in a packed gym,at least 8,000 Chinese fans unfurled an American flag. “That really says it all,” Davis said. “They look at her as an icon(偶像). m sure it’ hard I’ s for them to see her coaching another country,but they love her so dearly that her success is their
success.” The loyalty of the Chinese fans was tested on Friday,when China lost a match to the US. “It’ a pity that China lost the match,but I’ still glad that Lang Ping’ team won,since she s m s is the pride of China’s volleyball,” said Liu Chengli,a spectator.“We also cheered for Lang’s victory.” Lang said she just tried to stay professional when the two teams meet.“It doesn’t matter if we play China or any other team.It’s the same.” Lang said. Davis said she and her teammates could not have imagined the passion for volleyball among Chinese because the sport was lack of popularity in the US. The reception from Chinese fans has touched the US players,said US volleyball player Lindsey Berg. “It’ such an honor to be here and play for our coach here in China,” said. The amount s she “ of support that the Chinese give to her and us has been tremendous.The whole event has been unbelievable.”
  1.What’s the passage mainly about? A.Staying professional. B.Cheering for the Iron Hammer. C.A match between China and the US. D.Lang Ping’s career as a coach. 答案 B 解析 本篇文章无明显的主题句,但字里行间都在讲述我国著名排球运动员,现美国女 排主教练郎平带队到中国参加奥运会并受到了人们的热烈欢迎,故应选 B;而 D 项意 为“郎平的教练生涯”,显然不合题意。但多数学生误选此项,是由于只注意到了局部 信息,犯了以偏赅全的错误,而没有真正理解文章主旨。
  2.Lang Ping avoided meeting the reporters and fans probably because she . A.was afraid to be questioned about her strategy B.didn’t want to be paid much attention to C.disliked to be with her fans D.didn’t want to disturb public order 答案 B 解析 推理判断题。从文章第四段的内容可以推断出朗平希望不要太被关注。
  3.What does the underlined word “unfurled” exactly mean? A.destroyed completely B.tore into pieces C.spread out to the wind D.rolled up 答案 C 解析 词义猜测题。由文章第五段和第六段可以知道,这里的中国球迷应该是“打开、 展开”了一面美国国旗,所以选 C 项。
  4.What does Lang Ping mean by saying “It doesn’t matter if we play China or any other team.”? A.American Volleyball Team will beat any team. B.Chinese Volleyball Team is the same as other teams. C.She just tried to stay professional.
D.The results of each match will be the same. 答案 C 解析 推理判断题。从文章内容可以知道,朗平认为不论是对阵中国队还是其他队,对 她来说,这仅仅是一场比赛而已。由此推断选 C 项。
  5.What impressed the US team players most? A.The tolerance of Chinese people. B.The popularity of volleyball in China. C.Lang Ping’s coaching skills. D.The loyalty for volleyball of the Chinese. 答案 B 解析 细节理解题。从文章倒数第二段的内容可以知道,排球在中国非常受欢迎,所以 选 B 项。 2 (2009?北京,E) Camping wild is a wonderful way to experience the natural world and,at its best,it makes little environmental influence.But with increasing numbers of people wanting to escape into the wilderness,it is becoming more and more important to camp unobtrusively(不引人注目地) and leave no mark. Wild camping is not permitted in many places,particularly in crowded lowland Britain. Wherever you are,find out about organizations responsible for managing wild spaces,and contact them to find out their policy on camping and shelter building.For example,it is fine to camp wild in remote parts of Scotland,but in England you must ask the land?owner’s permission,except in national parks. Camping is about having relaxation,sleeping outdoors,experiencing bad weather,and making do without modern conveniences.A busy,fully?equipped campsite(野营地) seems to go against this,so seek out smaller,more remote places with easy access to open spaces and perhaps beaches.Better still,find a campsite with no road access:walking in makes a real adventure. Finding the right spot to camp is the first step to guaranteeing a good night’s sleep.Choose a campsite with privacy and minimum influence on others and the environment.Try to use an area where people have obviously camped before rather than creating a new spot.When camping in woodland,avoid standing dead trees,which may fall on a windy night.Avoid animal runs and caves,and possible homes of biting insects.Make sure you have most protection on the windward side.If you make a fire,do so downwind of your shelter.Always consider what influence you might have on the natural world.Avoid damaging plants.A good campsite is found,not made?changing it should be unnecessary.
  1.You needn’t ask for permission when camping in . A.national parks in England B.most parts of Scotland C.crowded lowland Britain D.most parts of England 答案 A 解析 细节理解题。由第二段最后一句中“...except in national parks.”可知。

  2.The author thinks that a good campsite is one . A.with easy access B.used previously C.with modern conveniences D.far away from beaches 答案 B 解析 细节理解题。由最后一段第三句“Try to use an area where people have obviously camped before rather than creating a new spot.”可知 B 项正确。
  3.The last paragraph mainly deals with . A.protecting animals B.building a campfire C.camping in woodland D.finding a campsite with privacy 答案 C 解析 推理判断题。最后一段主要讲述了在林地宿营的相关事宜。
  4.The passage is mainly about . A.the protection of campsites B.the importance of wild camping C.the human influence on campsites D.the dos and don’ts of wild camping 答案 D 解析 主旨大意题。全文讲述了野外宿营时应该做和不能做的相关事情。 3 Kids will often ignore your requests for them to shut off the TV,start their chores(杂事),or do their homework as a way to avoid following your directions.Before you know it,you’ve started to sound like a broken record as you repeatedly ask them to do their assignments,clean their room,or take out the trash.Rather than saying “Do your chores now.” you’ll be more effective if you set a target time for when the chores have to be completed.So instead of arguing about starting chores,just say,“If chores aren’t done by 4 pm,here are the consequences.”Then it’s up to your child to complete the chores.Put the ball back in their court.Don’t argue or fight with them,just say,“That’s the way it’s going to be.”It shouldn’t be punitive(惩罚性的)as much as it should be persuasive.“If your chores aren’t done by 4 pm,then no video game time until chores are done.And if finishing those chores runs into homework time,that’s going to be your loss.”On the other hand,when dealing with homework,keep it very simple.Have a time when homework starts,and at that time,all electronics go off and do not go back on until you see that their homework is done.If your kids say they have no homework,then they should use that time to study or read.Either way,there should be a time set aside when the electronics are off. When a kid wears his iPod or headphones when you’re trying to talk to him,make no bones about it;he is not ignoring you,he is disrespecting you.At that point,everything else should stop until he takes the earplugs out of his ears.Don’t try to communicate with him when he’s wearing headphones?even if he tells you he can hear you.Wearing them while you’re talking to him is a sign of disrespect.Parents should be very tough about this kind of thing.Remember,mutual respect becomes more important as children mature.

  1.According to the passage,it seldom happens that . A.kids turn a deaf ear to their parents’ requests B.parents’ directions sound like a broken record C.children are ready to follow their parents’ directions D.parents are unaware of what they are repeating to their kids 答案 C 解析 细节理解题。注意题干中 seldom 表否定。从文章开头两句可知孩子们通常不理 会父母的要求。
  2.Parents will be able to deal with their children more effectively if they . A.avoid direct ways of punishment B.make them do things at their request C.argue and fight with their children D.allow their children to behave in their own way 答案 A 解析 细节理解题。从第一段中间部分可知,作者认为“不与孩子发生正面冲突会取得 更好的教育效果”。
  3.When the kid is doing his homework,parents . A.should provide him with a good learning environment B.can do whatever they like C.can stay aside watching TV D.must switch off the power 答案 A 解析 细节理解题。从第一段可知“在孩子做作业时,家长要关掉所有的电器给孩子创 造一个良好的学习环境”。D 项“关掉电源”与文章不符。
  4.It can be inferred from the passage that . A.parents should take off his headphones when trying to have a talk with their child B.it will make no difference that a kid is wearing his earplugs while talking to his parents C.parents shouldn’t give in to their kid when he shows no sign of respect D.kids’ purposely talking to their parents with iPod gives them a sense of power and control 答案 C 解析 推理判断题。从第二段前两句可判断选项 C 正确。
  5.The main idea of the passage is . A.that respecting each other is more important than anything else B.how kids behave to ignore and disrespect their parents C.that children should make choices and decisions on their own D.how parents can deal with their kids’ behavior effectively 答案 D 解析 主旨大意题。本文旨在帮助父母有效应对孩子不听话的问题。
 

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